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Midterm

CLA230H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Polis, Lefkandi, Ostracism


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA230H1
Professor
Dimitri Nakassis
Study Guide
Midterm

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Sunday, October 9/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
Legend
Bolded and underlined (whether in black or red or blue) - Likely to appear on exam
Underlined - Key term from book
Underlined and red - Key term from lecture
Underlined and blue - Key term from lecture and book
Note: I have included all keywords as they may or may not aid in other parts
of the exam, not just definitions
Chapter 1 - A Small, Far-Off Land
Herodotus
Lived around 480s - 420s BC
Greek man living in Halicarnassus
His book Histories which may not be very accurate does tell us a lot about Greek life at the
time
He wrote to record great human deeds so that they may not be forgotten
There was an emphasis on the male spheres of action: political and military (the Persian
War especially)
He was interested in Greeks as well as non-Greeks
He is later criticized for this
He is interested in causes of events and why things happened the way that they did
He was born around the time of the Persian War and therefore not an eyewitness to most of
what he writes on
He gathered different stories and stitched them together - an oral history
A lot of bias in oral history, so he had to sort through different versions
He is useful to modern historians because he will tell multiple versions of the same event
Sometimes tells us which he believes to be correct; he would apply logic to determine
whether the account was plausible or not
Along with history he is interested in culture, geography, geology, the workings of the gods
and the fantastic
He is named ‘the father of history’
Greek Problem
Most Greeks thought that the gods were powerful and wise and that only a few oracles and
priests had access to them
This access was open to challenge, however and could not be used to dominate others
Greece doesn’t have one religious authority, well organized priesthood to create orthodoxy (not
spiritual leaders), or central sacred books
These conditions, created a fundamental conflict called the ‘Greek Problem’
A set of conditions, with which Greek thinkers struggled
Without gods to rule and reveal the truth it was concluded that human reason was the only
guide to truth

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Sunday, October 9/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
If no king had special access to the truth then all men must be roughly equally qualified to
discuss it
Therefore, the only source of good decisions must be the whole male community
Other Greeks drew different conclusions from Greek problems
Elites should rule, could be trained on behalf of whole community to skillfully reason
This diversity produced two results:
Constant intercity warfare as different poleis promoted own visions
Thinkers needed to explain how the universe worked independent of divine whim, and why
there was so much variety
Their questions initiated Greek science and philosophy
Hellenes
What greek speakers call themselves
Lived in cities scattered from Spain to Ukraine
Concept of nation-state simple did not exist
Hellas
Hellenes agreed that their ancestral home was Hellas
Located around the aegean sea
Autochthonous
Means ‘born from the soil’
Hephaestus ejaculate on Athena’s leg, she wiped it off with a piece of wool and dropped it to
the ground from which Athens sprang
They had and always lived in Athens
Pelasgians
Means ‘people of the sea’
Other Athenians believed that their ancestors had invaded the territory from the outside
First cohabiting and then expelling the people call the Pelasgians
Ionians
Descendants of Ion, a legendary ancestor
Generally sided with Athens during the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
Chapter 2 - Country and People
Hesiod
Poet living probably around 700 BC
Wrote poem of agricultural and moral advice ‘Works and Days’
Works and Days
Written by Hesiod

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Sunday, October 9/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
Agricultural and moral advice
Describes the seasons
Demography
By combining brief literary references to daily life that do survive with archaeology and by
comparisons with other premodern societies we can sketch a credible picture of ancient greek
demography
Demography revolves around facts of life in a society and the study of biological aspects of
human societies
Ex, life expectancy, health, population, size, distribution, growth, rates of birth, etc
Thucydides
460-390’s BC
Athenian aristocrat, served as a general in military
Had an unsuccessful career, later exiled at which point it is likely he wrote his histories
He is the next major historian after Herodotus
Historian of Peloponnesian War
Unlike Herodotus he was actually alive and present during the war
As it is his war he says it’s the biggest and greatest
Unlike Herodotus he weeds out stories he finds ‘mythical’ and very rarely gives more than one
account
Takes mythological and traditional and rationalizes and modernizes it
He was a critical thinker
We can’t know whether or not his chosen version is correct because he does not give
alternates
Sometimes there is a sense that he is leaving something out
Weeds through the discrepancies of different eyewitnesses to find the most accurate
version
He is not interested in great stories, takes a more analytical approach
Shows awareness of archaeology as a way of understanding the past and was aware of its
weaknesses
He thought that accurate history could be learned from
He therefore lack romance and is much dried than Herodotus
Hippocrates
Most famous Greek doctor
Lived in the later 5th century BC, probably on the island of Cos
This is speculated because there was a kind of hospital in classical and hellenistic times as
well as a great temple to the healer god Asclepius
He was said to have written the famous Hippocratic oath which doctors take today
Franchthi Cave
Provides unbroken stratigraphic sequence from 23000-3200 BC
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