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Midterm Key Terms (ch 9,11,12,13,14,15)

Course Code
Dimitri Nakassis
Study Guide

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Sunday, November 6/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
Bolded and underlined (whether in black or red or blue) - Likely to appear on exam
Underlined - Key term from book
Underlined and red - Key term from lecture
Underlined and blue - Key term from lecture and book
Note: I have included all keywords as they may or may not aid in other parts
of the exam, not just definitions
Chapter Nine
In 594 BC the Eupatridai chose solon, one of their own in a reaction to several issues:
Class warfare, loss of territory (Salamis) and feuding aristocracy
He, like Lycurgus, saw an ideal society as a band of brothers
Reorganized the existing economy and society by redefining property rights
All current debt-bondsmen were freed and from now on no one could own another freeborn
Those sold into slavery abroad were brought back
He redistributed land although we are not sure of how
Probably not equally divided
Probably returned land to it’s original owners
Also defended right of childless landowner to sell, give or will land to whomever they
Plutarch in Life of Solon said that ‘The effect of this law was to make every
mans possessions truly his own
He also promoted a sounder economic base
Banned export of grain so it had to be sold at home
Encouraged easy to grow crops like olives and vines
He clarified weights and measures
Required fathers to teach sons a trade
Archaeological finds reflected increased prosperity after Solon
He overhauled political system, dividing citizens into 4 census classes based on wealth
1) Pentakosiomedimnoi - ‘five-hundred-measuremen’. Could hold all political offices
2) Hippeis - ‘horsemen’. Could hold all offices except treasurer
3) Zeugitai - ‘yokemen’. Could hold lower political offices but could not serve as archon
or treasurer
4) Thetes - ‘poor’. Could hold no political offices but attended assembly as jurors
Athenians called his reforms seisasachteia (‘the shaking off of burdens’)
Wooden boards recording his laws can still be seen on acropolis
Herodotus says that solon, after drawing up his laws he travelled for 10 years and visited
Amasis in Egypt and Croesus in Sardis

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Sunday, November 6/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
Archon in Athens 594/3 BC
Croesus was king of Lydia in 560-547 BC
Amarsis was pharaoh in 570-526 BC
Therefore this is not really plausible
Plutarch says that ‘the story is so good that [whether it’s true or not] doesn’t matter
Solon is seen as the founder of democracy
As time goes on, athenians attribute democracy to solon
Plutarch says that he established the council of 400 and the Areopagus but solon does not refer
to this council in his poetry
Perhaps people assumed there was a predecessor to council of 500
In 411 there was a council of 400
It was an oligarchic counter revolution
Cancellation of pay for political office
List of 5000 wealthiest athenians
Some political killings, fear and suspicion
Said to have created perfect laws for Sparta
Made all Spartiates equal, regulated their lives and forged the ultimate fighting machine
according to legend
Created the spartan social organization
Two kings: mostly military leaders, very restricted powers, inherited (two separate royal
Spartiates (full citizens, 9,000 in number)
Perioikoi (the ‘dwellers around’ who ruled themselves and had no say in the politics of
Helots (serf population)
They could be granted citizenship
Around AD 100 Plutarch wrote biography of Lycurgus, but even he admitted that his life and
doings were widely disputed
Worshipped as a god in sparta
An air of supernatural
Pythia told him his reforms
Spartans claim he got it from crete
The Great Rhetra
Rhetra is word for law
Plutarch says that Lycurgus got rhetra from Delphi
Tyrtaeus tells story that Apollo tells them how to organize
Herodotus says they didn’t believe in the apollo myth but Tyrtaeus and Plutarch do
Tradition says the ephors were added later
Chilon (6th century BC) is attributed to their creation
They were created to keep kings in check

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Sunday, November 6/11
Introduction to Greek History
D. Nakassis
Key Terms
Ephors supported king, king promises to be good
Mid 7th century BC
The fact that it is in Tyrtaeus makes the Rhetra authentic archaic evidence
King Agis IV
Reigned 244-241 BC
Proposed a redistribution of 4500 plots for spartiates and 15000 perioikoi
Presumably lost control of Messenia, therefore he gives half of Lycurgus original numbers
Sentenced to death by the Ephors
There are less and less spartiates because wealth is concentrated in the hands of the few
therefore, people can no longer afford to be spartiates
King Cleomenes III
Reigned 235-222/219 BC
Married Agis IV wife, she convinces him to continue his reforms
Tried to continue the reforms of Agis IV
But power was in hands of ephors
He murdered 4 of 5 ephors, removes the seat of the ephors except the one which he sat in
Early 1st millennium greeks settled in Western Turkey to escape problems of Dark Age
mainland greece
Called the area Ionia
Claimed to be descended from legendary Ion
Ionian Enlightenment
Ancient Mesopotamian learning and new greek institutions fused in 6th century BC
Along Ionian coast and especially Miletus
Enormous advancements in science, rational scientific criticism
Ionian enlightenment principles articulated here for the first time
Milesian thinkers asked why
Old men gathered in towns to talk everyday in main square
One of the 3 major ionian thinkers identified by aristotle
Probably wrote nothing
Wanted to explain natural cause of things
First natural philosopher
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