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Midterm

Midterm One


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA230H1
Professor
Dimitri Nakassis
Study Guide
Midterm

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CLA230H1 – Midterm One
Wednesday, October 12/ 11
Time Periods Discussed:
Bronze Age (3000 – 1200 BC) Prehistory
Complex civilizations with large populations, social heirarchy, monuments,
art
Literacy – elites had special access to divine powers
Centeralized power under palatial control, “command economies”*
Main civilizations: Minoan and Mycenaean
* according to Morris and Powell: command economies operate on the basis of the
palace controlling agriculture, who grew what and who got what. There is
evidence of this but it is disputable whether this was actually the case or whether
the palace just controlled it's own lands and goods.
The Iron Age (Aka: The Dark Age – 1200- 800 BC) Protohistory
Bronze age centers burned to the ground for unknown reasons
Populations shrank, literacy and advanced crafts and social hierarchy
disappered
International trade and communication was stunted significantly
Rich burials, opposed to temple offerings
Not a lot of evidence about what was happening in the “dark age”, this
creates a problem because too much emphasis is put on the limited
evidence we have, problem with chronology due to regional variation.
The Archaic Period (800 – 500 BC) Historical
Reverse of the collapse of the Iron age, populations grew, trade increased
Emigration of Greeks off the mainland into Italy, Sicily, Black Sea Coasts
Emergence of small “city-states” - equality amoung male citizens, and
rejection of the ruling elites were connected to the divine, leading to the
Greek Problem*
Move towards democracy, and mass importation of slaves
*Greek Problem: without gods to rule and reveal the truth, human reason was the
only guide to the truth
Key Terms
House of Tiles: Lerna (3200 – 2000 BC)
Measured 8' -40 ft, named for the clay roof tiles that covered it
Large store rooms & second floor
Hypothesized to be an administration center due to the sealings discovered
there (usually used for sealing documents and storing food)
House possessed fortifications which were built after the house and appear
not to be used
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The Palace of Knossos (apprx: 1500 BC)
Located on the Island of Crete, comprimised of hundreds of rooms, storage
units and covered several acres
Seemingly centeralized system, meant for trade and administrative
services, agricultural storage (taxation system)
Record keeping by scribes also appeared here, Cretan hieroglyphs and
Linear B used
Linear A Writing (2000 BC)
Administrative language used at palaces, used to run complex
bureaucracies
Writing still has yet to be deciphered
Linear B Writing
Used for recording Mycenaean Greek and was founded on the island of
Crete, temporary records scratched onto damp clay, which were then
preserved due to the fires in 1200 BC
Consisted of 89 Syllograms (names, verbs etc) and 100 Logograms (used for
commodities, and Numerals
Purely administrative/economic records for the palace, from temple
offerings, to inventory of livestock and food, taxation, land holding, and
craft production
Tablets are of importance because showed the complex social hierarchy that
was in place at the palace as well as the advancement of the society and
culture, everyone owed obligations to their superiors
Protopalatial Palaces (1900 – 1700)
1. Phaistos: Left wing collapsed in, then filled and built upon again. Luxury
objects, monuments, storage rooms, sealings, and works of art all appeared
here. Shows that Phaistos had a palatial function.
2. Akrotiri 1628 BC: Greek (minoan) Pompeii – Volcanic eruption and tsunami.
Ash from eruption left the remains well-preserved and undisturbed, giving it
incredible archeological significance. Individuals were forced to leave their
belongings behind.
Minonanization (influence eminating from Crete) founded largely on these
sites, cultural blending between the Cretians and Minoans are apparent
from wall paintings, pottery and other artifacts found at these sites.
Meaning there was obviously contact and trade occuring between these two
societies.
Moses Finely Paul Halstead
Near Eastern economies were
dominated by large palaces/
temples/ complexes owned the
Palaces had control only over
resources and people in the
palatial territory, outside of that
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