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Midterm Two Terms

Course Code
Dimitri Nakassis
Study Guide

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Week Two (Week 6 - 8)
Wednesday, November 09/ 2011
Causes of Colonization
ŸLand-hunger (increasing population, famine, political disputes,
inheritance issues)
ŸLocation of new resources
Cyrene (631 BC)
ŸGreek Colony in Libya - founded by a group of immigrants from the
island of Thera in the Aegean
ŸBattus: leader, became the first king, founded dynasty Battiads
(631-440 BC: eight generations)
ŸEconomically prosperous: coins credited to the Lydians: King
ŸMix between Silver and Gold coinage
ŸPort: Apollonia
King Arkesilas II of Cyrene
ŸKnown as ‘the oppressor, the harsh, the severe’
ŸDynasty began to decline due to his reign, became more of a tyrant
then a king
ŸBefriended Learchus who had intentions of stealing the throne,
whose plots were later foiled and he was sent into exile and settles
in Barca
ŸLearchus defeats Arkesilas in battle, and kills him with a poisonous
1. Pindar: two victory poems for King Arkesilas in chariot victory at
2. Herodotus: foundation story told by people of Cyrene and Thera
3. 4th c. Inscriptions from Cyrene
4. Fragment of 3rd BC historian
Herodotus: Accounts of the Colonization of Libya
Therans Cyreneans

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ŸKing Grinnas consulted the
Oracle at Delphi which ordered
him to found new Libyan
ŸPythia commands colony to
settle in Libya
ŸNo rain in Thera for the next
seven years
ŸBattus embarks on the
expedition and fails, then
attempts to return to Thera
ŸTherans send one of two
brothers: Battus
ŸCreates settlement on the
island of Platea
ŸBattus becomes the expedition
leader and the King of the new
Colony Cyrene
ŸPlatea settlement a failure,
Cyreneans invite the settlers
to stay
Comparison of the Stories
Similarities Differences
ŸConsultation with Delphi
ŸBattus as leader of colonial
ŸFirst settlement at Platea
ŸTherans: emphasis on the role
of the city in the colonization
ŸCyreneans: emphasis on the
role of Battus in the founding
of Cyrene
ŸCommonly found at the Oracle of Delphi
ŸPriestess at the temple of Apollo: known for her prophecies
ŸPossibility of gas rising from geological chasm being responsible for
4th c. Inscriptions from Cyrene
ŸTherans given citizenship of Cyrene in accordance with the rules set
down in original colonization of Cyrene
ŸApollo told Battus and Therans to colonize Libya
ŸIf the colony was successful their kinsman could join later: if not
they must return to Thera
ŸCurse is placed on those who do not abide by agreement
Menekles of Barke
ŸNorth African Writer
ŸClaimed citizens of Thera fell into civil strife

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ŸBattus as one of the faction leaders was driven from the city and left
the country
ŸOracle advised Battus to establish a colony elsewhere instead of
pursuing internal strife in Thera
Battle of Marathon (490 BC)
ŸFollowed the Ionian revolt, after the burning of Sardis
ŸDarius, empower of Persia, seeking revenge on the Athenians and
Eritrians for aiding the Ionians
Ÿ492: Darius sent his son in law; Mardonius with a fleet to punish
Athens and Eretria. Though the fleet met a storm and lost 300 ships
and 20,000 men
ŸAthenians and Spartans executed Darius’ heralds when they came
to demanding for Earth and Water
Ÿ490: Darius sent a force of 30,000 men with Hippias the son of
Athenian ex-tyrant Pisistratus to destroy Athens and reinstate
Hippias as the King
ŸDarius plunders and burns Naxos and Eretria (whom the Athenians
sent a troop of 4000 hoplites to protect, and who were turned away
because Eretria had fallen into turmoil and political upheaval)
ŸMiltiades , and Athenian General, led a force of 9000 hoplites to
Marathon where they were joined by a group of 1000 Hoplites from
ŸThe Persians and Greek forces met at Marathon in a face-off that
lasted one week (6,400 Persians killed, 192 Athenians)
ŸPheidippedes sent to Sparta for help, but Spartans were unable to
come due to their laws and were forces to wait until the next full
ŸAthenians raced the Persian fleet back to Athens on foot, preventing
the sack of the city
ŸAristophanes: “Nothing is feared more then the Attica Wasp”
ŸPresent Day: Marathon- Tomb of the heroized Athenian War Dead
Athenian Treasury at Delphi
ŸDedicated to Apollo from the Medes - first fruits of the battle of
Marathon (490 BC)
Herodotus as a Source
Issues on account of the Battle of Marathon:
5. Terrain suited to Cavalry: the Greeks did not have a Cavalry unit, but
instead were subjected to constant raids made by Persian Cavalry
6. Athenians / Plateans charge 1480 m to meet the Persians in battle:
would be difficult to hold formation and run such a distance
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