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CLA232H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Croesus, Sophocles, Scapegoating

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Victoria Wohl
Study Guide

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ThucydidesPericles Funeral Oration
After the first year of the war, Pericles gives this epitaphios logos to honour the
The qualities that Pericles praises are:
1.Unique Institutions: He says that the Athenian system of government is original
and was not copied from another poleis. In fact, he says that it acts as a model to
other cities.
2.Democracy: He praises that fact that all Athenians are equal before the law, and
that it is merit and not birth that is praised and respected.
3.Law-abiding: Athenians keep to the law in public affairs and deeply respect the
4.Openness: They allow foreigners into Athens without worrying about leaking
military secrets because they rely not on their secret military weapons to win
battles but their courage and loyalty.
5.Courage: The Spartans have to be trained their whole lives to be courageous,
Athenians are naturally courageous. The Spartans have to bring all of their
allies to battle, Athens brings itself.
6.Moderation: Athenians are moderate. They do not do anything in excess.
7.Rational : They think their actions through before deciding.
8.Freedom : All men are in charge of themselves.
Think about Pericles purpose: justify fighting for Athens, an inheritance, empire
Hesiod Theogony
First Generation
Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) have the Titans and Kronos
Ouranos despised his children and hid them away in a cavern of the Earth
Gaia plots with Kronos and they castrate Ouranos, throw his genitals into the
ocean, and Aphrodite is born

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Second Generation
Kronos and Rhea (his sister) have the Olympians
Kronos was afraid his children would take his power (like he did to his father)
so as they are born he eats them
When Zeus is born, Rhea gives Kronos a rock to swallow and hides Zeus on a
mountain to be raised
When Zeus reaches adulthood he returns to Olympia and forces his father to
regurgitate his siblings
Zeus banishes his father and takes his place as the ruler of the gods
Third Generation
Zeus and his siblings fight and defeat the Titans
Member of the generation of Titans, a civilization hero
A divine hero who gives humans the means of civilized existence
When Zeus comes to power, Prometheus decides to test the new king
The Gods and mortals were going to come together for a feast, so
Prometheus decides to try and trick Zeus by sacrificing an ox and taking the
good parts and wrapping them in a hide so that they look like the bad parts
He then takes the bad parts and wraps them in a layer of fat so that they look
like the good bits
He tells Zeus to choose which ever one he wants and he chooses the bad bits
This is the origin myth of sacrifice: humans would now kill the animal, eat the
god bits, and burn the bad bits in smoke up to the gods
Zeus was mad and hides fire (means of survival) from humans but Prometheus
steals it back
Zeus is angered again and punishes humans by creating woman

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This story shows the weakness of humans: Sacrifice (you need food to
survive), fire (our means of livelihood), and woman (we must procreate, and
procreation as this poem shows us I a source of conflict)
Sophocles Oedipus the King
Meden agan: nothing in excess
Gnothi seauton: know thyself
Laius is the king of Thebes and marries Jocasta, an oracle tells him that his
son will kill him so he doesnt have sex with his wife
But one night he does and they have a baby
They expose the baby to die but a shepherd finds him and gives him to the
childless king/queen of Corinth, Polybus and Merope
Oedipus grows up and finds out hes adopted
He goes to the Delphic oracle to find out if this is true
The oracle tells him that he will kill his father and marry his mother
Oedipus, thinking this means Polybus and Merope, leaves Corinth and goes to
On the way to Thebes an old man strikes him with a whip and he kills him
A sphinx has been harassing the Thebans but Oedipus manages to solve her
riddle , which causes her to jump off a cliff
The Thebans are so happy that they make Oedipus king (because their king
Laius is missing)
He thus marries queen Jocasta and they have four children
A plague breaks out in Thebes
Teiresias, the blind doctor, tells Oedipus that he has killed his father and
married his mother
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