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Study Notes for First Test

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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA233H1
Professor
Erik Gunderson

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CLA 233 Study Notes
ORIGINS -- LIVY
Book 1
Livy- About
Livy had a boner for teaching. His stories were primarily moral influences and examples;
how a Roman should and should not think of himself, his country, and behavior.
Origins
-Livy has two stories for the origins of Rome:
-Trojan exiles; Aeneas leads a group of noble, highborn Trojans across the world
to found a new city, founds the first of a series of cities which will eventually be
Rome
-Slaves and criminals; Romulus, the only descendant of Aeneas to actually be in
Rome, determines the whole population will be comprised of runaway slaves.
He creates the asylum in his new city to populate it.
Bros Fighting Bros
-Romulus and Remus were rescued by a she-wolf or a woman named Laurentia (slang
for prostitute)
-Were the two boys raised by a wolf or a whore?
-Romulus and Remus! mother, Rhea Silvia, claimed to be raped by a god.
-But the possibility exists she was lying.
-Romulus and Remus both have valid auguries, so they fight. Livy words it: “fighting
ensued and Remus died,not “Romulus killed Remus.
The whole story is an example of Livy!s euphemising.
Romulus:
-Romulus gave the Romans a body of laws, set up the senate, etc, then died.
-A sunstorm occurred and Romulus was taken away by a pillar of light
-The senators tore him to pieces
Sabines
-Romans were scumbags, no breeding between tribes occurred. The Romans stole the
Sabine women, saying to them that they were overcome by their beauty (Livy
euphemizes rape). The familie are assimilated; the idea of assimilation between the
Sabines and Romans through mutual agreement and genetic interchange, would be
very interesting to imperial Romans (who say their empire this way).
Kings
-Numa: He becomes king after Romulus dies and there is an interregnum of one year.
He is a sabine, which is a compromise between the newly united Romans and
Sabines. Numa is the “peace and religionking. Numa builds the temple to peace
(Janus) to complement Romulus! temple to war, diverting the energy from fighting to
civilization.
-Founded multiple priesthoods and religious rites; instructed people as to how to
carry out funerals and how to explain oracles.
www.notesolution.com
-Tullus: Tullus is the war king. Because the state was atrophying, in his opinion, he
decided to manipulate some embassies to cause a war; Albans and Romans involved
in a border dispute were sending emissaries to one another. He made unreasonable
demands from the Albans, and used their refusal as his justification for war.
-The armies did not fight, but rather, two sets of triplets from either town dueled;
the Romans had the Horatti and the Albans the Curiatii. Using trickery, the last
Horatius defeated the Curiatii one by one. Horatius!s sister was engaged to a
Curiatus, and wept when he died. Horatius killed her on the grounds that she
prioritized herself over her country. On appeal, Horatius! father Publius declared
that his daughter was justly slain, else he would have punished his son.
-The War: Veintines, and Fidenae march on Rome, and the Albans planned to
betray their new masters, the Romans. Tullus, knowing Mettius planned to
betray him, executed him by drawing and quartering.
-The Albans were decreed that they would join Rome with full rights.
-The War with the Rest of the Sabines: he takes them over handily.
-Oracle: Tullus hears of a shower of stones on the Alban Mount, a pestilence
followed, and Tullus became religious in his later days. He became prey to
every sort of religious terror.
-Ancus
-His character is more religious than Tullus, but more warlike than Numa. As an
example of the blend: he creates the rite of war, which infuses justice into
Roman fighting.
-In order that wars are proclaimed with formality, he wrote down the law
used by the Aequicoli; the procedure is very rights focused. The
ambassador issues the demands from the other country, saying they are
just... and if they have not been granted within 33 days, he leaves the
city to be conquered “to go consult the elders” to obtain “our rights.The
Senate then decides “the caseof the city to be conquered, and then
each senator affirms that it!s a just war. The whole process is very
legalistic.
-The people, in this case, were the Prisci Latini, who made an incursion
into Roman territory. Ancus took the city of Politorium and settled its
people on the Aventine.
-Tarquin
-Lucumo, the son of a Corinthian, settled in Tarqunii, and married Tanaquil, a
wealthy, high status woman. He moved to Rome because Rome was the only
place a foreigner could rise high. This move was made at Tanaquil!s urging.
-Most kings of Rome have already been foreign
-Oracle 1: an eagle swooped down, taking Lucumo!s cap. It circled him, then put
it back on. Tanaquil interpreted it as a sign from the gods.
-Lucumo proclaimed himself Lucius Tarquinius Priscus: he rose to prominence
as a result of his “lavish hospitality” and generosity. He became close with the
king and was appointed guardian of his children.
-He was the first to campaign for the crown; he made his case that he was
Roman through and through. His goal was to increase his own power as much
www.notesolution.com
if not more as he designed to increase that of the state (created 100 new
senators for exactly this purpose).
-Wars:
-Apiolae: took the town by storm, and carried off enough plunder to build
the Circus Maximus
-Sabines: the cavalry needed to be strengthened, but the initial battle
order was blessed by Romulus. Ignoring all religious auguries. The battle
was won by a trick; Romans lit some logs on fire so they drifted to the
bridge, and destroyed it. The Sabines, disorganized, were routed.
-Collatia was annexed from the Sabines.
-Prisci Latini: Towns were taken, the nation was subjugated
-Peace Projects: walled the city with stone, drained the forum, and built up a
space for a magnificent temple of jupiter.
-Servius:
-Indicated he would be king as a wreath of flames appeared around his head.
-He was selected as the favourite by Tanaquil, but the sons of Ancus had a
problem with that: they plotted against the life of Tarquin, hiring two shepherds
to plant an axe in his skull. Tanaquil cleared the palace and told everyone
Tarquin was fine, and that Servius was appointed to rule until he recovered.
-Servius, then, arose to the throne permanently (without being elected by
the people). Ancus! sons then went into exile.
-Instituted the census: duties of war to be assigned on the basis of each man!s
ability to contribute.
-Assassinated by his daughter and her husband, Lucius Tarquin. Tarquin bribes
the country into making him king, then assassinates Servius (who placed the
last piece of Roman government in the hands of the Romans and planned to
transfer gov!t to the senate).
-Tullia drives her chariot over her father!s corpse
-Superbus
-Refused to bury his father in law, earning him the nickname “the proud
-Conducted espionage of the Latins (Turnus) to deceive them onto his side.
-Wars: Volsci, Gabii (Sextus Tarquin engages in deceit)
-Peace: Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Cloaca Maxima
-Engages in forced labour to complete these structures, horribly
unpopular king
Sextus Tarquin, Superbus! son, rapes Lucretia, another man!s wife (Collatinus). She
kills herself (death before dishonour), and Collatinus and Lucius Junius Brutus stage an
overthrow.
Tarquins are thrown out of Rome after a Brutus-lead coup (kissed the earth upon
returning from Delphi).
Oath of Brutus: never a king again in Rome!
Book 2
Tarquin Tries to Get Back
-Lars Porsenna leads an assault on Rome for the sake of Sextus Tarquin. Mucius
Scaevola does his left-hand thing. He was so rattled that he sued for peace.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CLA 233 Study Notes ORIGINS -- LIVY Book 1 Livy- About Livy had a boner for teaching. His stories were primarily moral inuences and examples; how a Roman should and should not think of himself, his country, and behavior. Origins - Livy has two stories for the origins of Rome: - Trojan exiles; Aeneas leads a group of noble, highborn Trojans across the world to found a new city, founds the rst of a series of cities which will eventually be Rome - Slaves and criminals; Romulus, the only descendant of Aeneas to actually be in Rome, determines the whole population will be comprised of runaway slaves. He creates the asylum in his new city to populate it. Bros Fighting Bros - Romulus and Remus were rescued by a she-wolf or a woman named Laurentia (slang for prostitute) - Were the two boys raised by a wolf or a whore? - Romulus and Remus mother, Rhea Silvia, claimed to be raped by a god. - But the possibility exists she was lying. - Romulus and Remus both have valid auguries, so they ght. Livy words it: ghting ensued and Remus died, not Romulus killed Remus. The whole story is an example of Livys euphemising. Romulus: - Romulus gave the Romans a body of laws, set up the senate, etc, then died. - A sunstorm occurred and Romulus was taken away by a pillar of light - The senators tore him to pieces Sabines - Romans were scumbags, no breeding between tribes occurred. The Romans stole the Sabine women, saying to them that they were overcome by their beauty (Livy euphemizes rape). The familie are assimilated; the idea of assimilation between the Sabines and Romans through mutual agreement and genetic interchange, would be very interesting to imperial Romans (who say their empire this way). Kings - Numa: He becomes king after Romulus dies and there is an interregnum of one year. He is a sabine, which is a compromise between the newly united Romans and Sabines. Numa is the peace and religion king. Numa builds the temple to peace (Janus) to complement Romulus temple to war, diverting the energy from ghting to civilization. - Founded multiple priesthoods and religious rites; instructed people as to how to carry out funerals and how to explain oracles. www.notesolution.com
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