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Ben Akrigg
Study Guide

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Greece Major Chronological Periods
Bronze Age: c. 3000 c. 1200 B.C.
Iron (or Dark) Age: c. 1200 c. 800 B.C.
Archaic Period: c. 800 c. 480 B.C.
Classical Period: c. 480 c. 323 B.C.
Hellenistic Period: c. 323 onwards
Minoans on Crete: c. 2000 B.C.
Hellenistic Period begins with the death of Alexander the Great.
Rome Major Chronological Periods
Iron Age: c. 900 c. 750 B.C.E.
„Regnal‟ Period: c. 750 c. 500 B.C.E.
Roman Republic: c. 500 c. 31 B.C.E.
The Principate: c. 31 B.C.E. late 3RD c. C.E.
Late Antiquity: roughly the 4TH 7TH c. C.E.
Rome expulses their Kings and forms the Republic.
Classical Archaeology 1
Classical archaeology definition more problematic (historical reasons)
Sub-discipline of classics + archaeology (complicated relationship)
Greek versus Roman Archaeology
Both geographical
(Greek- Aegean + East Mediterranean)
(Rome- Italy + Western Europe)
Both chronological
(Greek about 100 BC, Roman 200 BC to 500 AD)
Classical deals with material culture of civilizations that are familiar through elite
literary culture
Many cultures not literate, not produce texts that survive in great numbers (as in
Other literate cultures are not well + known through literary output rather than
prosaic documentary records (as in Medieval England)
Literary Texts may be viewed as:
Negative: finding suitable illustrations in text
Positive: All types of material survives as a unique opportunity for studying
use of material culture in early literate societies
Doing Greek Archaeology

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Johann Joachim Winkelmann (1717-1768)
Influential figure spreading interest in ancient Greece in mid 18th century
Never did any fieldwork
Appointed Papal Antiquary (1763)
Access to virtually all sculpture excavated in Italy + exported from Greece
Largely driven by reading ancient literary texts
Visited excavation at Herculaneum (started in 1738) and Pompeii (1748)
Highly critical of both sites
Greek Independence
Waning power of Ottoman empire makes Greece directly accessible
Lord Elgin’s acquisition of sculpture from Parthenon (1801-1811)
Greek War of Independence (1821-1830) New nation state
Leaders (Bavarian Monarchy) parade monuments as symbols of their identity
Archaeology in Greece
Presence of foreign national school of archaeology founded in Greek
Biggest + Most important were those founded in 19th century
The French School (EfA) in 1846
The German School (DAI) in 1874
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) in 1881
British School at Athens (BSA) in 1886
17 Foreign schools with official recognition
Georgian School in 1997 + Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG/ICG) in 1976
Tight controls on archaeological fieldwork in Greece
Foreign schools must apply to the Ministry of Culture for 3 permits for
excavation/ survey projects yearly
In addition, apply for 3 permits for collaborative projects with Greek
Archaeological Service
Fieldwork with sponsorship of foreign schools can be carried out by foreigners
Majority of archaeological fieldwork is carried out by Greek Archaeological
Service (branch of Ministry of Culture)
Regional departments called Ephorates
Specialized central departments called The Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities
National Archaeological Museum
39 Ephorates of Prehistoric + Classical Antiquities
28 of Byzantine Antiquities
Privately sponsored archaeology in Archaeological Society of Athens (1837)
Long term research excavations (Athenian Agora- American School 1931)
Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890)
Excavates at Troy (1870) + Shaft Graves at Mycenae + Bronze Age Citadel at

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Enthusiastic + Wealthy amateur going against dominant scholarly views at the
His methods attracted a great deal of criticism Excavations were destructive
Work carried out with a clear, problem oriented, research agenda
Focused on stratigraphic sequence at Troy
Brought Greek Bronze Age clearly to light
Arthur Evans (1851-1941)
Was a respectable academic and had less criticism
Excavating in Crete (independent in 1898) 1900
Uncovering palace at Knossos revealed civilization that predated anything
known from classical literary texts
John Beazley (1885-1970)
Working on Athenian painted pottery
Production of catalogues of black and red figure painted ases
Attributed them to specific artists + schools
Arrangement of vases into a chronological framework
Doing Roman Archaeology
Interest in material remains hand in hand with increasing interest in classical
literary texts in Europe (14th c. onwards)
Cyriac of Ancona
15TH Century
Descriptions of monuments + antiquities in Rome
Travelled extensively in eastern Mediterranean + recorded (drew) his findings
Strength of his interest in Greek antiquities as well as Roman
Illustrated the Parthenon of Athens
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Important in the history of archaeology
Excavated under patronage of Charles of Bourbon, King of Naples in 1738 +1748
1st catalogue of finds was published in 1755
1762 Winkelmann published a Letter on Herculaneum finds
1860 Giuseppe Fiorelli began proper, systematic + recorded excavations
Foreign Archaeological Schools in Rome
French Academy (17th century)
British School at Rome
American Academy in Rome
The Finnish Institute in Rome
Less central to Italian archaeology than Greek counterparts
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