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CLA310 Final Exam Review

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Susan Dunning

CLA310Religion Roman WorldS Dunning1010112812FINAL REVIEWMIDTERM67pmINDIVIDUALS AND RELIGION I 1010Roman domestic religionSource of great debateWhat we decide is domestic and civic religionRoman religion thought as civic could only worship with other groups of people in theoryThink about the differences practices of the plebeians and the patriciansoHow do they worshipClassic Roman example of pietas is Aeneas carrying his father and penates from TroyoDifferent from religiosusHow do Romans make choices about how they worship godsoDo they have to do it a specific way or is there flexibility about how they do itRoman houseUpper middle class citizenAtriumhearth lobbycentral courtyardoWhere people would come to do business oFocus of the housewhere women do all the cooking close to the dining roomOther parts of the house peristyle columned garden cubiculum bedroom and oecus livingdining roomoRoman decoration permanent and pervading no part of wall left undecoratedAs houses get more developed they cook less at atriumsmellyLarariumshrine for the household deities laresoNot every household had a shrineLares They dont have distinct stories or names or personalitiesWorshipped as a groupcollective deitiesClothing is flowy often seen dancinglight on their feet floatyHold cornucopia or plain horns drinking hornsConnected with bounty and plentyCommon representation of Lares are that they are often paired together Domestic setting lares familiaresPublic setting crossroads lares compitales lares that protected the cityoFormer celebrated by festival Compitalia later changed to lares AugustiMarine setting lares of the seaAlso found in fields and neighborhoodsThese deities are very pervasive Romans were supposed to cultivate a relationship with themoGive the lares familiares food offerings flowers honeycombsNonhuman deities nor are they connected to dead ancestorsbut they are interested in preserving familys best interestsClassified on the same level of penates as a geniusThe duties of attending to the lares is assigned to the paterfamilias and assisted by the materfamiliasSlaves and children also gave presents to these and other deities Plautus AlulariaLares in terms of woman and marriageoDowry The girl gives to the lares and he favours herFamily devotion was not the only duty of the maneveryone in the family had to giveoConstant giveandtake relationshipAugustus and the Lares CompitalesNames this cult after himselfsignificance oEstablished himself as father of Rome paterfamiliasoAffirm self as religious headThe people in charge of this cult were commoners oSlaves could also hold important religious positionsoInclusion in the family of RomeoWhat goes on in the house is parallel to what goes on in publicoMaster wants slaves to be included in worshipWant all the slaves in Rome to be just as concerned with Romes welfare as the citizensGroups of freedmen and slaves formed colleges and made sure rituals were performed in different areas of the cityvery organizedoNot just going to have slaves running around freelyoFreedmen held more important positions than slavesGenius and JunoGenius of paterfamilias and Juno formed central role on protecting familyGuardian spirits of man and womanJuno goddess of marriage oHad smaller counterparts as noted by epithets to protect womenGenius holding a round dish going through actions of sacrificeoOther representations have a box of incenseoWears a togasometimes veiled sacrificingperforming a ritualOffering sacrifices to genius of specific men and housesMost families has statues in houses but some could not afford itAeneas and the Penates of TroyIndividual people worshipped penates within domestic context LarariumTemple architecture brought into a persons houseWhat is represented in image would have probably been significant for the people of the family but we still dont have ancient commentary on thatSerpent at the bottomoChthonic fertility symboloShed their skin and retained seemingly perpetual youthEvery family could have a painting or a statue on the larariumoSome families were not able to afford expensive sculpturesoPrimitive statues could mean they could not afford more or they thought better ones were frivolousIf house were burning down lares statues and other deities would be top priorityVesta and the FocusVesta was usually not depicted in images In the home the hearth is her residenceoReceived honours ie libations food offerings and sacrifices thereoHearth ritual both a public and private ritual Vestal virgins took care of household of RomeoCommunication between Rome and the godsMarriageRituals that are associated with the house and were important with Romans and their daily lifeoHad consequences about how they would behave in publicOdd institution2 types oIn manu marriagemoved from supervision and authority of father to husbandoSine manushe was without authoritywould marry husband and would still be completely under the supervision and authority of her fatherIf one wanted to be a flamen you had to be born from a family of in manu marriageSine manu marriage doesnt have legal repercussionsThe ceremony involves a man and woman exchanging rings in engagement then clasping hands pledging their troth in the presence of male relativesA procession to the brides house occurs after the ceremonyDeities could be called upon to assist in the marriagenot just household deitiesoBride and groom may or may not make offerings to the deitiesBride would take a torch lit from her hearth and carry it to her husbands where she would be met along the way by someone with a torch lit from her husbands hearthoBefore leaving her own house she dedicates her old toys and clothes to the her lares oWhen she gets to her husbands she would pay a copper coin to her husbands laresoTorches would be extinguished and then the bride would be carried over the threshold by the servantsBride cannot become materfamilias if it was a sine manu marriageChildbirth Divine interventionTook place within the home Another aspect of Junogoddess of childbirthLatin word for light child coming into the lightWomen presentwere not wearing hair up and clothes tied togetheroEverything in the room loose and free to ensure easy childhoodRituals for childs protectionPersonified godchilds first cry first babbling etcChild mortality was very high at this timeVotive offerings
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