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University of Toronto St. George
Mark Easton

CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES Geography, the Etruscans  Sea o Good for trade, but dangerous for travel  Mountains o Difficult place to live  Rivers o Good places to settle o Apulia and Po River Valley o GREAT RIVER PLACES: Latium, Etruria, and Campania  Etruscans greatly influence Rome and dominated over Rome for a long time  Greatly influenced by Eastern culture (esp. Greeks and Asia Minor) From Kingship to Republic  Start of monarchy due to Etruscan rule and influence – originally chiefdom  Had many rulers of different identities: Latin, Etruscan, etc  Then due to Tarquin the Arrogant – the Rape of Lucretia and the Revolt of Brutus – lead to the divisions of powers! Conquest of Italy  During the Republic!!!  What happened in Latium? o Abandoned lands (due to war), growing population – moving people into other lands that were abandoned o Rome had been constantly in the middle of conflict of others  Greater Roman Area o Capture of Veii o Disappearance of Etruscan historical influence  The Sack of Rome o Rome got back the treasury from the Gauls after they sacked the earlier city of Rome  Central Italy  Samnite Wars o 1 : Samnites take over Capua – indecisive victory o 2ndRomans send troops to make areas their Socii – both exhausted rd o 3 Roman victory – Samnites become Rome’s Socii  Latin Wars o Rome kicks butt with help of Samnites o Disappearance of Latin League  All more than 30 members become Roman allies  Socii and Municipia become a vital role  Northern Italy o Trouble with Sabines and Gauls (Po River Valley), Etruscans, Umbrian o Rome ensured solidified rule over this territory  Punished severely for those who revolted  Killed many people, slavery, etc.  Enforced them to become allies  Southern Italy o Pyrrhic Wars (by King of Molossus, King Pyrrhus)  Battle between Greece and Rome  Rome take over Tarentum  Tarentum plead for King Pyrrhus’ help and he accepts as an opportunity to take over (good trade and source of resources) CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES o Battle of Heraclea, Ausculum  Roman loss, but Pyrrhus lost many men o Battle of Beneyentum  Romans win o END:  Made these Greek colonies into Roman  Lots of Greek pride still and there were much revolts – Syracrus, Thurri, Tarentum) Why was Rome at War so much?  Cannot be king -- A way to gain personal glories by winning wars and battles  Much competition between aristocrats  Economic status of average Roman citizen rose – more land, money, and resources from conquering land  Outside conflict decreased conflict internally in Roman world  Decreased noble infighting and internal conflict  Helped gain political success as a Republic in Rome Why was Rome so Successful in Conquest of Italy  Internal coherence  Aristocrats focusing on battles o Series of law that eased tensions between rich and poor  Good Relationship with Allies o Clearly defined way of stating that Rome will treat cities well, if they did not resist  External Threats o Less infighting  Geographically Central o Easy access to other colonies via roads  Fertile and Populous o Good success in rising population and maintained it o Sent people to other places for land maintenance and settlement  Military Organization and Tactics o Army was disciplined  Luck Republican Politics (Cursus Honorum)  More people became involved in politics after monarchy was eliminated  Cursus Honorum (ladder of offices in government) o Consul – military and peace o Praetor – proconsul and justice o Aedile – quality of Roman living o Quaestor – organized finance  Other offices: o Military Tribune: same function as consul o Magister Equitum: lead cavalry and army o Dictator: chosen by senate during desperate times – only 6 months o Censor: collected taxes o Tribune of the Plebs: only Plebs – protect interest of Plebs – can also impact the Senate  Twelve Tables o Group or committee of men who made and solidified laws – laws were above the consul and the king itself CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES o Had laws similar to early Athens  Struggle of Orders o Patricians – aristocratic families, POWER = senate and money o Plebeians – everyone else POWER = Tribune of Plebs and Plebian Assembly  Sextian Licinian Law o Balanced out powers of Patricians and Plebs o Reduced Debt and Debt Slavery with Plebs o Richest Patricians took a limited number lands  Roman Political Bodies o Senate: gives advice to consuls, informal power o Centruiate Assembly: lots of people, represented mostly rich people  Elected consuls, praetors  Passed laws on War and Peace  Judge murder trials/capital charges o Tribal Assembly: represented tribes, based on location and money  Elected Aediles and Praestors  Passed the laws of Consuls and Praetors  Judge all trials o Plebeian Assembly  Elected Tribune of the Plebs  Passed any laws of the Plebs  All trials involving Plebs o Patron/Client System  Patron helped out a client through connections and trials in court  Very useful for clients  Patrons used clients as a way to give themselves good rep. MEDITTERANEAN EXPANSION st 1 Punic War  START: causes and tensions were accumulated as Carthage started to expand into Roman territory – Carthage = navy, Rome = land army  Messana siege by Mamertimes o Carthage (without Mamertimes asking) helped Mamertimes against Syracruse to take over Messana o Rome found this unacceptable that Carthage has taken over this territory  BATTLES: o Battle of Argrigentum (in Sicily):  Romans chased Carthage people out and Carthage escape to Argrigentum  Romans forced them out using corvus ships (rammer and bridge-like connection ship that made it an advantage to their land army) o War in Numidia:  Rome used corvus ships to transport Rome to Africa  No more manpower in Carthage  END: Hamilcar (Carthage) negotiated peace with Rome  PEACE: Carthage had to pay tribute and give up Sicily  GAIN: Sicily becomes a Roman province nd 2 Punic War CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES  START: tensions between Carthage and Rome despite having the Ebro River Treaty in Spain (Rome wanted land!) o Ebro River Treaty: Division of Spanish territory after 1 Punic War – Romans get North, Carthage gets South o Initiated with the Carthage’s Siege of Saguntum (Spain) by Hannibal  BATTLES: Hannibal leads army through land instead of sea to surprise the Romans – successful o Battle of Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae – Roman loss  Romans get a dictator Cunctator – who slowly retreats Roman army back and weaken Hannibal’s forces – successful, but Romans see it as cowardly o Battles in Africa (Utica and Zama)  Africanus makes trouble in Africa and Hannibal withdraws to deal with it – fails  END: Carthage is defeated and treaty is made  PEACE: Carthage has to surrender navy fleet and territory outside of Cartahge, forbidden to wage war without Roman permission, and paid larger tribute  GAIN: Rome gets Nearer and Farther Spain rd 3 Punic War  START: Carthage revolt against Numidian invasion – Roman declared that it was a violation to treaty o Hannibal’s fixing economic and internal problems in Carthage allowed Carthage to grow wealthy o At first Carthage negotiated terms but refused to leave home and send hostages (stated by Romans)  BATTLES: o Battle of Carthage: siege of Carthage and its city  Important hub in transporting grain from Africa  END: Carthage was defeated and never recovered once more  GAIN: Lands of Carthage  Lusitania, Spain o Roman solidified powers in Spain – created Nearer and Farther Spain – by resisting revolt and creating a new Spain 1 Macedonian War  START: Romans sent ships and armies to protect Macedonian port from piracy, etc. and they saw Macedonia’s growing power and thought it was a good opportunity to take over this great empire  END: They made a peace treaty instead of taking over due to their conflicts with the Second Punic War nd 2 War  START: Romans claim -- they will free Greece from Macedonian rule after the Second Punic War  BATTLES: o Battle of Cynoscephale – Roman victory  END: Macedonia had to pay huge tribute and give up military defences and strength 3 War  Romans won the Battle of Pydna  Romans took away Macedonian monarchy and governed Macedonia  Macedonia was forced to send hostage so they wouldn’t revolt against Rome 4 War CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES  Not a big battle  Andricus declared himself as king of Macedonia and was crushed by Roman forces  Rome sent consul and praetor to Macedonia and made Macedonia a province of Rome – prevention of revolt Syrian War  START: saw much chaos and took it as an advantage o Rome took over Syria after Second Punic War  BATTLES: o Battle of Magnesia: Roman victory  END: Syria had to give up navy and pay huge tribute o Fall of Corinth – Sack of Corinth o Free from Macedonian rule – believed they could be awesome and revolted o Romans refuse and Greece gets absorbed into province of Macedonia o Province of Asia Minor is later created by Romans Social History: Roman Comedy  As Rome expanded o More slaves were getting sold and Rome was getting much revenue  Stock character: CLEVER slave and chaste, virtuous woman who is note married  SLAVES in Roman Comedy o Slave sounded clever and consul-like – inversion of hierarchy o EXAMPLES: Toxilus-Persa, and Pseudolus o REALITY: Slaves did not have many rights had horrible punishments (could not own property, not make decisions, etc.)  WOMEN in Roman Comedy o “Verigo” Women were virtuous, unmarried -- had no sexual relations with man o Married women is shown with embarrassing ridiculousness – husband cannot control his shrewd wife o EXAMPLES:  Mercator(verigo), Asinaria(sine), Casina(cum)  Marriage: cum manu – restricted kind of marriage  Husband gains control of wife and her dowry  Husband controls divorce  sine manu – more relaxed marriage o Wife can control dowry o Wife can also decide divorce The Republic Breaks Down  Had two different types of people  Populares: appealed to the Plebs/people, Tribune of Plebs, Pleb Assembly o Gracchi, Marius, Julius Caesar  Optimates: appealed aristocrats, Senate o Sulla, Pompey and Crassus  REASONS WHY REPUBLIC BREAKS DOWN o Agricultural changes o Lack of farmers during war caused farms to become abandoned o Urbanization and growth of the urban poor  Aristocrats buy farms and lands and have slaves to work for them  Rome’s rapid expansion o Discontented Italian Allies – wanting citizenship  Wanted better rights – foreign colonies were treated better CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES o Increasing Prominence of Powerful Individuals  Manipulation of Republican institutions by powerful individuals (either popular support, money extortion, infighting, etc.)– can be for the bad or good o Short term in offices  Caused people to take much money before office was done – did not fulfill duties) o Created tensions between Rome and foreign allies  LEADERS o Gracchi: Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus populares  Had land reforms and limited patrician landholdings to redistribute the land to the plebs  Used the Tribune of the Plebs and Plebeian Assembly to pass laws and gain power  Senatus Consultum Ultimum – allowed Senate to do anything against the law in the interest of the Republic o Marius populares o Jugurthine Wars – had brilliant military career in Africa  He was willing to take anyone in the army who was loyal  POWER: Consulship and Tribune of Plebs&Plebeian Assembly o Loyal Plebs -- Saturinus and Glaucia (Tribune of Plebs)  Senate was not happy and sent a mob to beat his loyal plebs – Marius left Rome and went to the East to fight some campaigns o Sulla optimates  Marius came back to Rome after conquering against King Rufus  Sulla marched into Rome – conquered Mithridates’ area and threatened Marius to leave Rome or else die – he left Rome again  Takes power away from Plebs assembly – made many reforms  Senate gains much power  After Cinna’s death, he goes on a second march and declares himself as a dictator and reorganizes government (efficiency) – nervous  Success: improve condition of Roman poor and is very successful o Cinna populares  Cinna gathers personal army and takes over Rome  He and Marius work together – Marius gains his consulship again  Different ideas of improving Rome, but both tried to improve agricultural conditions in Rome  Cinna is declared as a dictator  Pompey and Crassus optimates  Both supported Sulla  Knew both would become a powerful team as consuls  Pompey = not very good commander (uses military advisors)– persuasive speaker o Cut Spanish rebel commander o Expeditions in the East o Paid military well  Crassus had money and good business connections – not much political influence  CHANGES: gave power to Tribune of Plebs and Plebeian Assembly CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES Roman Oratory  Cicero – a Roman orator that compared himself with the Greek orator Demosthenes o Created the style of Ciceron speech – introduction, narration, confirmation (gives arguments to support position), refutation (anticipate what the opposing side is going to say or you have heard what they say), conclusion (leaves an impression) o Made bad arguments look good and were modelled from the Greeks o STRUCTURE OF SPEECH  Contio: address people in court  Deliberative: Romans discuss on what action to take in times of decision/2 opposing side  Judicial: Forensic and was a trial/Guilty or not?  Demostrative: Epideictic/ when trying to say a peron’s character or personality (whether the person is good or bad) o Had two styles: Attic (simplistic and straightforward) and Asiatic (complicated and dramatic – flowery) o FAMOUS EXAMPLE:  Catiline’s conspiracy – was sent as a Roman official in Africa  Charged with misrule and corruption  Unhappy to not become consul – gathers conspirators to create a conspiracy during Cicero’s rule as consul  Senate tried to do senatus constulum ultimum – cannot find evidence of conspiracy until Allobroges sends Catilline’s letter of asking for help in conspiracy  Cicero sentences Catiline and his supporters to death – uneasiness due to these sentences among Romans Caesar, Augustus and the End of the Republic (including Augustus’ Building Program) Caesar populares  Military command in Spain  Made friends with Crassus and Pompey  Cato the Younger all pissed them off – he caused the earlier signs of the fall of the Republic o Against Crassus: obstructs law bill  Against Caesar: Caesar wanted to come to Rome and be celebrated with triumph of his military campaigns and be consul – Cato said only one can be chosen  Results in Triumvirate: All three would use their influences to control Rome to help each other out o Caesar runs for consul, Pompey helps get lands and ratifies his acta, Caesar helps Crassus in passing tax bill o Caesar tries conquering Gauls  Conference of Luca: reaffirmed their alliance as Triumvirate o Pompey and Crassus become consuls  Caesar commands Gauls and uses their influence to continue conquering  Death of Crassus due to failure in military campaign in Spain  PROBLEMS: o Pompey as Sole Consol – getting too much power and Caesar is worried that he might march into Rome to overthrow him o Pompey uses senate, Caesar uses Mark Anthony (doesn’t work) CLA160H1S FINAL EXAM – NOTES o Caesar is angry and declares Civil War by crossing Rubicon River– Pompey flees to Greece o Caesar administrates himself and takes over Rome with no opposition – mobilized his army to Greece  BATTLES: o Battle of Deracium – tie o Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar beats him – Pompey escapes to Egypt where he is beheaded by Egyptians as a gift to Caesar o Battle of Thapsus – Cato supports Pompey and uses his remaining army against Caesar – Caesar wins  CAESAR’S REFORMS o Increased the senate and number of elected offices o Forgives Pompey supports as a sign of mercy and rewards o
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