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Midterm

CLA160 MIDTERM STUDY NOTES

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA160H1
Professor
Mark Easton
Semester
Summer

Description
CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 1 I. Map Identification: Know the location of these 20 places. 5 of these will appear on the exam. Knossos Thebes Hellespont Syracuse Mycenae Pylos Asia Minor Delos Athens Aegean Sea Macedonia Mytilene Sparta Corcyra Peloponnese Granicus Corinth Amphipolis Black Sea Persepolis CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 2 V. Image Identification  approximate date, identity of figures, significance  3 of these will appear on the exam, from which you will choose 2 to discuss. Attic black-figure, c. 490 BCE  originated in Corinth – Corinth  The figures were painted in black pigment on the natural red clay ground  Finishing details were then incised into the black pigment, revealing the red ground Attic red-figure, c. 470 BCE –  Quickly became more popular than black-figure pottery Athens  black background, and the outline details on the figures were also painted in black  Significance: The red-figure design gave more flexibility in rendering human form, movements, expressions, and perspective. Since most of the ornamentation was narrative, such technical advantages were of utmost importance. Temple of Apollo, Delphi –  Significance: in Greek mythology, the oracle at Delphi is where a From c. 8th century BCE priestess delivered messages from Apollo to those who sought advice. Then it became a place where states from all over the Greek world and Asia Minor sent representatives to Delphi to ask the Oracle important stuff. The treasuries were all around here, like a little city. Also an indication of Panhellenism, gives a sense of unity, just like the Olympics did and stuff Reconstruction of the  Heroon = “building of Hero” “Heroon” – c. 950 BCE, in  Huge building, 50 meters long and 13.8 meters wide Lefkandi  Woman’s body was buried, with a lot of jewelry, had a knife beside her and 4 horses  Beside her, man’s ashes in an urn engraved with a hunting scene. Weapons were nearby  Don’t know if the heroon was built to commemorate a hero or if it was instead the grave of a couple who were locally important for other reasons  Clay centaur – It was found in two separate pieces, body and head, that were found in two different graves Alexander at Issus mosaic,  Depicts Alexander the Great (left) on his horse, charging 100 BCE – in Pompeii, Rome towards King Darius III of Persia (on the chariot)  Significance: It is a good example of propaganda for "the West" defeating the cowardly "East" – the depiction of the west (Alexander's army and the hoplites) as ordered and the east (Darius' army, behind Darius) CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 3 Bronze tragic theatrical mask  Many of the characteristics of Hellenistic theatrical masks are in – Hellenistic period evidence here, including the large, exaggerated mouth and raised forehead  Obviously its size and weight would have made it impossible to wear in a theatrical production = indicating that it was decorative in nature Spartan hoplite, bronze statue  Hoplites were citizen soldiers from the polis in ancient Greece – Archaic period, Laconia  The word Hoplite comes from the Greek word “Hoplon”, meaning “shields”  Phalanx o How these guys fought. The armor was really heavy, they couldn’t move very well o So they got into these shoulder-to-shoulder square formation o Slow marching o Their purpose is to push the enemy’s phalanx off the battlefield  Othismos o The word for “smash”, when the armies actually collide  Ritualized activity o Since every Greek army has hoplites, whichever army has stronger men and stronger push will win o Everything was settled in a few hours; it is very tiring so it had to happen quickly  ‘Hoplite revolution’ o The guys in the phalanx were middle-class land-owners, and had to buy their own panoply o In return, they wanted political involvement – they wanted a say in the government Herm – Archaic period, from  The phallus – essential part of the symbol, represented the island of Siphnos divinity of the reproductive powers of nature  Put around places for protection, to “turn away” evil, and placed outside Athenian homes for good luck  415 BCE – Alcibiades tells Athenians to invade Sicily. Next day around Athens, the Herms were found without penises. People thought Alcibiades did this and sent troops to execute him Bull-leaping fresco, c. 1400  we still don’t exactly know what’s going on here – seeing from BCE – Palace at Knossos, the Egyptian tradition, the dark figure is male and 2 pale figures Crete should be female, however, they are wearing protectors  either means 2 things: it can show the bull-leaping in 3 diff stages OR 3 figures interacting with the bull – the women as assistants, to show their worthiness as aristocrats  can either be a sport, although hopping over a bull like that is physically impossible, or can be a religious ritual  can represent the power of the Minoan elites over the bull CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 4 Mycenaean warrior vase, c.  discovered by Heinrich Schliemann 1200 BCE – Mycenae  best known piece of late-Helladic pottery, it is used to mix water and wine  warriors in heavy armor, armed with spears and shields  on the side: bull’s head handles – these handles made the th scholars think that the vase was from the 7 century BCE VI. Passage Identification  identify and comment on each of the following passages  the significance of each passage by author, text, general period of composition, speaker (if relevant), and implications for the study of Greek history  relate them to the class’ content  3 of these will appear on the exam, from which you will choose 2 to discuss 4.2, Greek Life in the Eighth Century B.C. 1: ‘The Shield of Achilles’ 4.3, Greek Life in the Eighth Century B.C. 2: Hesiod’s Works and Days 5.3, The Hoplite Polis: Sparta CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 5 8.9, ‘War is a Hard Master’: The Melian Dialogue  what was Thucydides doing etc  4.1, A Greek Definition of the Polis 8.4, Imperial Democracy: A Critical View 9.1, Death of a Gadfly: The Apology of Socrates CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 6 9.3, Plato and the Turn to Monarchy 10.1, Alexander the Great: Two Contrasting Views 10.2, Alexandria and the Colonial World of Hellenistic Egypt CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 7 VII. Short Essay  approx. 4-5 paragraphs in length  know the general chronology and geographical scope of the topic  be able to cite specific examples (e.g. sites, concepts, places, events) that provide evidence for the development and recognize the general effects on subsequent Greek history  3 of these topics will appear on the exam, from which you will choose 1 to discuss *The impact of the Macedonian hegemony of the fourth century BCE on subsequent Greek history. Consider the impact on the political, cultural, artistic, economic, and military landscapes of the Greek world. *The character of Dark Age societies in Greece. Consider the political and economic features of the period, the position of Greece in the wider contemporary Aegean world, and the social structures that held these societies together. Also, what are the sources that enable us to study the period? CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 8 *The transition from the pre-Greeks (Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures; Minoans) to proto- Greeks (Mycenaeans) to Dark-Age Greeks (Dorians, etc.); the structure of their societies, their culture, their position in the Aegean world. The Origins of Greek Culture  By 1500 BC, a uniform material culture emphasizing military display extended over much of the continent  Many Chiefs of the territorial kingdoms  Greece was preeminently a borderland region, benefitting from being on the fringes of two worlds  far enough away from the major Middle East – escaped political domination and was too poor to be considered worth conquering Minoan Age 2200-1400 BCE  Evans named them Minoans after their king, Minos  2500 BC – civilization came to Crete through/from Anatolia? (turkey)  4 major palaces were found – Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, Zakros o Made mostly of stone, mud, timber o Oil, wine, grain stored in huge jars o Goods kept in stone chests  Frescoes: wall paintings o Beardless men, women with elaborate hair and dresses o Plant and animal life  Minoan artists excelled at jewelry making: delicate carvings in ivory, gold, silcer, stones  Like in Mesopotamia, kings presided over society o However unlike Mesopotamia, no large temple complexes were established on Crete  Worship o Was conducted in mountain caves and mountaintop sanctuaries  Politics o Probably independent, self-ruling states, with Knossos (maybe) exercising an honorary overlordship  Writing o Linear A – introduced in 1700 BC, a kind of syllabic script, has not been deciphered yet o Linear B – successor to A, dates back to 1450 BC, is identified as Greek o Both were used to record palace transactions and to keep inventories o They are weak writings, made from clay tablets, skin, and bark  Accidental burning of an archive baked the tablets hard, preserving them  Trade o Exports – Wool, oil, timber, as well as finished goods, including pottery o Imports – raw materials, luxury items o Crete is an ideal position to be a trade intermediary, since it is located on the fringes of both the barbarian and civilized worlds CLA160H1S Midterm Study Guide 9  Women o Female deities were common, including Great Mother Goddess – she has 2 snakes o Women were prominent in Minoan religious and social life  Such as processions and athletic events, bull-leaping ceremony Minoans and Mycecaeans  1450 BC, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece came to power in Crete, not sure how, but probably by force  Linear B – introduced at this time, in Greek  Knossos dominated most of central and western Crete until about 1200 BC, when it was burned and looted The Mycenaean Age 1600-1100 BCE  This age of Greece lasted twice as long as the Classical Age (500-300 BC) o However, we do not have much into on it, despite 5000+ tablets o These tablets concern a single year in the life of only one mainland palace, toward the end of the 13 century BC o The rest relate to Mycenaean Knossos  Shaft Grave Era, 1600-1500 BC o Schliemann discovered 5 shaft graves in 1876 – gold crowns, masks, jewelry, etc o 24 more were found in 1951-1952 – various weapon
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