Intro to Classical Studies Final Exam.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Johnathon Burgess

Greco-­‐Roman  Civiliza▯ons   •  Tried  to  define  the  human  in  the  context  of  the  divine  and  the  animal.   •  Emphasized  human  consciousness  of  ▯me   rd •  3  mill.  BCE   ü  Minoan  Civiliza▯on  à  Greece   ü  Sumerian/Old  Kingdom  à  Egypt     •  2  mill.  BCE   ü  Minoan  Civiliza▯on   ü  Mycenaean  Civiliza▯on  (Myths  of  Heroic  Age;  Trojan  War)   ü  Myth  of  Aeneas  Founding  Rome   ü  Akkadian/  Middle,  New  Kingdoms   •  Early  1  mill.  BCE   ü  “Dark  Age”   ü  Myth  of  Aeneas’  Descendants   ü  Foreign  rule  of  Egypt   ü  Rise  of  Assyrian  empire   •  Archaic  Age  (ca.  800-­‐480)   ü  Greek  “renaissance”   ü  Socra▯cs)  lon,  Peisistratus,  Cleisthenes  (polis,  tyrants,  Persian  invasions,  epic  and  lyric  poetry;  Pre-­‐ ü  Myth  of  Romulus  &  Remus   ü  Etruscans   ü  Early  Rome  as  village,  monarchy  à  dominated  by  Etruscans,  Persian  empire     •  Classical  Age  (ca.480-­‐323)   ü  Peloponnesian  War  (Athenian  Democracy,  Drama,  History,  Philosophy,  Sophists)   ü  Early  Roman  Republic   ü  Conquest  of  Italian  Peninsula   ü  Persian  empire   •  Hellenis▯c  Period  (ca.  323-­‐133)   ü  Rise  of  Macedon  and  Philip   ü  Alexander’s  Conquests   ü  An▯gonid  Kingdom,  Achaean/Aetolian  Leagues   ü  Rome  eventually  controls  Rome   ü  Hellenis▯c  Culture   ü  Carthaginian  Wars   ü  Conquest  of  West  Mediterranean,  Greece   ü  Roman  Comedy   ü  NE  Egypt  Hellenized  (Seleucid,  Ptolemaic  Kingdoms)   •  Late  Republic  &  Civil  Wars  (ca.  133-­‐31  BCE)   ü  Controlled  by  Rome   ü  Gracchi  Brothers   ü  Marius/Sulla,  Caesar/Pompeii/Crassus,  Mark  Antony/Octavian   ü  Oratory  of  Cicero,  Poetry  of  Catullus   ü  Greece  controlled  by  Rome   ü  Inroads  in  NE  by  Rome     •  Augustan  Period  (ca.  31  BCE-­‐  14  AD)   ü Part  of  the  Roman  empire   ü Dominance  of  Augustus   ü Virgil,  Horace,  Ovid,  Livy   ü West  NE,  Egypt  controlled  by  Rome   •  Roman  Empire   ü Part  of  the  Roman  empire   ü Julio-­‐Claudian,  Flavian  Emperors   ü Silver  Age  Literature   ü Growth  of  Chris▯anity   ü West  NE  Egypt  part  of  Roman  empire   •  Late  An▯quity     ü Part  of  the  Eastern  Roman  empire   ü Split  of  Empire   ü West  NE  Egypt  part  of  Eastern  Roman  empire   Big  Picture   •  Hominids   •  Homo  sapiens  à  last  100,000  years   •  Paleolithic  à  old  stone  age   •  Neolithic  à  new  stone  age   •  Agricultural  Revolu▯on  (ca.  9  mill.  BC)   ü  Jericho,  Stonehenge,  Caltalhuyuk   •  Ancient  Near  East     ü  Bronze  Age  (ca.  3000-­‐1200)   ü  MESOPOTAMIA  à  middle  river  place   ü  3  –  2  mill.  BC:  Sumerian  Language/Akkadian  Civiliza▯on   ü  City-­‐States  (Uruk,  Babylon)à  empires   ü  Language  Groups:  Semi▯c  (Akkadian),  Indo-­‐European  (Hi▯te)   ü  Hi▯te  à  Sea  Peoples   •  Civiliza▯on   ü  Non-­‐nomadic   ü  Cul▯vated  plants,  domes▯cated  animals   ü  property/buildings/ci▯es  (ca.  3000  BC)   ü  War,  malnutri▯on,  disease   ü  Specialized  skills,  economy   ü  Government  (temple,  palace,  assembly,  council)   ü  Wri▯ng,  accoun▯ng,  administra▯ve,  law,  religious  myth   •  Hammurabi  Law  Code  (Stele)   ü  King  of  Babylon,  first  half  of  2  mill.  BC   ü  Provides  stable,  public  rules   ü  Penal▯es  for  killing  someone’s  daughter:   ü  If  an  equal’s  daughter,  your  daughter  is  killed   ü  If  a  commoner’s,  pay  ½  mina   ü  If  a  slave’s,  pay  1/3  mina   ü  Some  legal  and  economic  rights  for  women   ü  Sign  language,  Cuneiform,  Hieroglyphics  (Pictures  of  single  things/ideas)   ü  Syllabic:  Consonant  +  Vowel  Sound   ü  Semi▯c:  Aleph  and  Beth  à  Alpha  and  Beta   ü  True  Alphabet  created  by  Greeks   Beginning  of  the  Gilgamesh  Epic   •  Gilgamesh  à  Civiliza▯on   •  Ancient  Mesopotamian  Literature   •  Fear  of  Mortality   •  Immortalized  by  the  Gods   •  Cosmographical  Journey   •  Walls  =  Protec▯on   •  Literacy,  Temple,  Urban  Society   •  Tragic  Hero  (Popula▯on  unhappy  with  Gilgamesh)   •  Flawed  Hero  (Gilgamesh  is  “not  ethically  admirable”)   •  Stone  Ones  à  Used  to  cross  the  river  of  Death   •  Bread  =  Passage  of  Time   •  End  of  the  Epic  (Gilgamesh  takes  pride  in  the  city)   Ancient  Mesopotamia  &  Ancient  Egypt   •  City  states,  empires   •  Monarchy  (Shared  power  systems)   •  Wri▯ng  Systems  (pictographic,  phone▯c  cuneiform)   •  Polytheis▯c,  Anthropomorphic  Religion   •  Direct  Interac▯on  of  NE  and  Greece,  Rome   ü  Persian  Invasions  5  c.     ü  Persian  empire  conquered  by  Alexander  the  Great   ü  Some  Roman  interac▯on  (Aspects  of  civiliza▯on,  Large  public  buildings)   •  Ancient  Egypt   ü  Nile:  Agricultural  Flooding,  Transporta▯on,  Na▯onal  Unity   ü  Inward-­‐Looking   ü  Challenge  of  Hyksos  Invasion;  Eventual  Interna▯onalism   ü  Pharaoh  as  god  looking,  Na▯onal  Bureaucracy   ü  Pyramids,  Temples   ü  Religion:  Mul▯plicity  of  Divine  Beings  (Syncre▯sm  à  Demeter  &  Isis)   ü  O▯en  Animal  or  Hybrid  Gods  (Anthropomorphic)   ü  Concern  for  the  a▯erlife,  thus  with  the  body;  pyramids   ü  Some  trade/contact  with  Bronze  Age  Mycenaeans,  later  with  Greeks   ü  Greek  Wonder/Amazement  at  Egyp▯an  Civiliza▯on  &  Monuments  (Herodotus)   •  Poli▯cs  in  the  Iliad  (Thersites  vs.  Agamemnon)   •  Minoan  Civiliza▯on   ü  Evans   ü  Palace  Culture   ü  Linear  A  &  B   ü  No  walls   ü  Bull  &  Sea  Themes   ü  Linear  B:  Found  at  Knossos   ü   Pylos:  Greek  language,  economic  data   •  Mycenaean  Civiliza▯on   ü  Schliemann  &  Mycenae   ü  Palace  Culture   ü  Lion  Gate   ü  Grave  Circle  A  (Sha▯  Graves)   ü  tholos  tombs  “Ziggurat”  àTreasury  of  Atreus   ü  Linear  B     •  Trojan  War   ü  Thucydides:  History  but  ra▯onalizes  Homer   ü  Remarks  on  future  remains  of  Athens  and  Lacedaemon   (Sparta)   ü  Dio  Chrysostom  (Orator):  History  but  Homer  lied   ü  Hector  killed  Achilles,  Troy  defeats  the  Greeks   ü  Epics  comment  on  contemporary  issues   •  Homer   ü  Legendary  Poet,  No  historical  informa▯on   ü  Epics:  Long  narra▯ve  poems  in  meter  (arrangement  of   syllables  in  feet   ü  Iliad  (Poem  of  Ilion=  Troy,  Wrath  of  Achilles)   ü  Odyssey  (Poem  of  Odysseus)     ü  Composed  of  a  largely  oral  culture   ü  Muses  as  cultural  memory   ü  Epics  look  back  to  Heroic  Age  (Bronze  Age/Mycenaean   Civiliza▯on)   •  Iliad  (Narrates  part  of  Trojan  War)   ü  Features  Achilles/Agamemnon  dispute   ü  Achilles/Hector  ba▯le   ü  Achilles  mee▯ng  Priam   ü  Return  of  Hector’s  corpse   ü  Much  character  dialogue;  well  rounded  characters     •  Dark  Age  (ca.  1200-­‐800)   ü  No  palaces,  big  buildings   ü  Popula▯on  loss,  Migra▯on  to  Asia  Minor   ü  Use  of  Iron  (Iron  Age:  Hesiod,  archaeology)   ü  Loss  of  Literacy  (No  more  Linear  B)   ü  But  oral  tradi▯ons   •  Greek  Renaissance   ü  Iron  Age;  Archaic  Age,  800-­‐480   ü  Renewed  trade  with  outside  world   ü  Recovery  of  Popula▯on,  Coloniza▯on   ü  Rise  of  Polis  “city-­‐state”   ü  New,  True  Alphabet   •  Odyssey   ü  Odysseus  as  ethnographer/colonizer   What  is  Greek?   •  Hellen  (not  Helen  of  Troy)   •  Hellas  (Greece  as  a  general  civiliza▯on/  Modern   Greece)   •  Hellenic:  Greek,  generally  (Cf.  Barbaros)   •  Hellenis▯c:  Post-­‐Alexander  historical  period   •  Greek  Language  (Dialects:  A▯c,  Ionic,  Doric)   •  Pan-­‐Hellenic  Religious  Sites:   ü Delos  (Apollo)   ü Dephi  (Oracular  Apollo)   ü Olympia  (Zeus,  Olympic  Games,  star▯ng  776  BC)   •  Pan-­‐Hellenic  Religion  (Olympian  Gods,  Trojan  Myth,   Homeric  Epics)   •  Hoplite  warfare,  organized  into  a  phalanx   •  The  Polis  (independent  city-­‐state)   ü Athens,  Sparta,  Corinth,  Thebes   ü City  with:  walls,  public  spaces  (AGORA/FORUM)  &  building   (PARTHENON),  shared  power   ü Execu▯ve/Magistrates  (kings  in  Sparta)  SENATE   ü Tyrant  (Athenian  Pisistratus  and  Sons)   ü O▯en  Lower  Class  support   ü Army  Generals:  Commi▯ees  of  administrators  with  special   tasks   ü Council:  Organizers/  Decision  Makers  (dis▯nguished  by  age,   wealth  &  experience)   ü Assembly:  Vo▯ng  Ci▯zens  (By  default  landholding  soldier   males   ü Aristocracy  (best  power):  family  clans,  shared  culture,   inter-­‐polis  connec▯ons   ü Oligarchy  (few  rule)   ü Democracy  (people  power)   Classes   •  Aristocrats:  Landholders   •  thetes:  farmworkers  without  land   •  Me▯cs  (With  home):  Resident  non-­‐ci▯zens  (Greek  foreigners)  freed  slaves   •  Slaves:  non-­‐Greek,  exposed,  sold,  kidnapped   •  Sparta   ü  Homoioi  (equals)   ü  Two  hereditary  kings  as  military  leaders   ü  Council:  Magistrates  (Ephors)   ü  Assembly  of  male  ci▯zens   ü  Helots,  State  slaves   ü  State  educa▯on,  Military  training   ü  Rela▯ve  freedom  for  women   •  Athens:  Developing  Democracy   ü  Solon:  early  6 ,  debt  reform,  landless  vote   ü  Pisistratus:  +  Sons  =  Tyranny   ü  Cleisthenes:  late  6  c.,  ar▯ficial  poli▯cal  tribes  consis▯ng  of  demes   •  Aristotle:  Poli▯cs  (catalogues,  defines,  organizes)   ü  Kingly  Rule  à  Tyranny   ü  Aristocracy  à  Oligarchy  (few  rule)   ü  Cons▯tu▯onal  Government  à  Democracy   •  Theognis,  6  c.  (ISSUE  OF  SOCIAL  CLASS)   ü  Aristocra▯c  Lyric  Poet  from  Megara   ü  Younger  Male  Lover  Cyrnus  (Pederasty  “boy  love”)   ü  Agathoi  (good  men,  aristocrats)   ü  Kakoi  (bad  men,  tyrants,  married  wealthy  women)   •  Pithekoussai  (Cumae)   ü  Nestor’s  Cup  (Early  Greek  Symposium)   ü  Greek  Culture   •  Hesiod:  Theogony/Works  and  Days   ü  Theogony:  Origin/Geneology  of  Gods   ü  Works  and  Days:  Farmer’s  almanac  (works),  Calendar  of  Days   ü  Lots  of  commentary,  folklore,  myth   ü  Pandora,  Ages  of  Man   ü  Inheritance  dispute  with  brother  Perses  (Polis  Jus▯ce)   ü  New  polis  culture,  misogyny  “ha▯ng  women”,  CONSERVATIVE   Poetry   •  A.  EPIC   ü  Tradi▯onal  (Oral),  Lengthy   ü  Homer  (Heroic)   ü  Hesiod  (Didac▯c)   ü  Homeric  Hymns  (Praise  &  Narra▯ves  of  Gods)     •  B.  LYRIC   ü  Complex  meter   ü  Sung  to  music  (lyre-­‐lyric)   ü  Performed  at  Aristocra▯c  Symposium  (drinking  party)   ü  Content:  Brief,  personal,  contemporary,  local   ü  Theognis:  Poli▯cs,  Class,  Personal   •  Sappho  (Lesbos)   ü  Personal  Poetry   ü  Ero▯c  (Lust  for  her  trained  dancers)   ü  Aristocra▯c  (Imitated  by  Catullus  à  New  Sappho)   Pre-­‐Socra▯cs   •  Coast  of  Asia  Minor  (Turkey)   •  Verse  &  Prose   •  Later  Archaic  Age  Philosophy   •  Ionian  (Asia  Minor,  esp.  Miletus)   •  Ra▯onal  Inquiry  (Astronomy,  Maps)   •  Challenge  to  conven▯onal  thought  (Pythagoras  à  Religious  Figure)   •  Math  (Pythagorean  theorem)   •  Music  (Sound,  Physics  of  strings)   •  Mys▯cism  (Travelled  with  disciples)   •  Rela▯vism  (Xenophanes  on  Religion  à  Gods  as  Anthropomorphic   figures   •  Homer  &  Hesiod  (Famous  epic  poets)   ü  Challenge  earlier  writers   ü  Heraclitus  (Unified  cycle  of  day  &  night  à  Emphasizing  change)   Archaic  Age  Art  &  Architecture   •  Vase  Pain▯ng:  Geometric,  Orientalizing   •  Black  Figure,  Red  Figure   •  Statuary:  kouroi  (male  soldier),  korai  (female  virgin)   •  Public  Temples:  Cult  statue,  Columns  (Doric,  Ionic),  Pediments,  Pan-­‐ Hellenic  Sites   th •  Persian thmpire  (6  c.-­‐330)   ü  Mid-­‐6  c.  BC:  Asia  Minor  conquered  by  Cyrus  of  Persia   ü  Early  5  c.:  Rebellion  of  Greeks  in  Asia  Minor,  Miletus  sacked   ü  Anger  of  Persians  at  Athenian  Interference   •  Invasions   ü  Darius  invades  Greece,  Ba▯le  of  Marathon  (Athenian  Victory-­‐490)   ü  Xerxes  invades  Greece:   ü  Thermopylae  (Defeat  of  allied  forces  led  by  Sparta,  Deserted  –  Athens  is   burnt)   ü  Salamis  (Defeat  of  the  Persian  Navy)   ü  Plataea  (Defeat  of  the  Persian  Infantry-­‐  479)   •  Herodotus   ü  Scien▯fic,  Prose  account  of  the  past   ü  Character  speeches   ü  Use  of  myth/folktale/legend   ü  Divine  Retribu▯on   ü  Dreams,  Oracles,  Prophecies   ü  Thermopylae  (Memorable  king/Leader  Spartan  Leonidas)   ü  Minor  characters;  The  Traitor,  The  Seer   ü  Characteriza▯ons:  Greeks  do  not  have  wealth  but  they  have  willpower,   Divini▯es  know  of  mortal  ac▯ons,  Focuses  on  great  leaders   ü  5  c.,  From  Ionia,  Lived  in  Athens,  Colonist  in  S.  Italy   ü  Wrote  a  history  or  enquiry   ü  Histories:  Follows  Ionian  ra▯onal  tradi▯ons,  Analyzes  Persian  Invasions,   Cultures  invaded  by  Persians   ü  Father  of  Histories  or  Father  of  Lies   ü  Compares  alterna▯ve  informa▯on,  Hearsay  from  travels,  Accepts  role  of   Divine  Power   ü  Egyp▯ans  do  everything  backwards  (Sophocles  on  An▯gone)   ü  Exo▯c,  Weird,  Scandalous  Creatures  (Bald  Headers,  Goat-­‐Feet  People,  ½   Year  Sleepers,  Arimaspi  “one-­‐eyed  men”  and  Scythian  Cannibalism)   ü  Scep▯cism  and  Weighing  of  Evidence   •  Athenian  Democracy   ü  Key  Reform  Leaders:  Solon,  Pisistratus,  Cleisthenes,  Ephialtes,   Pericles   ü  Popula▯on:  430s,  150  K  (ci▯zens),  50  K  (me▯cs),  100  K  (slaves)   ü  Assembly  (Athenian  Name:  Ecclesia)   o  Meets  every  10  days   o  Located  at  the  Pnyx  Hill   o  Room  for  6000  ci▯zens  at  first   o  Male  ci▯zens  vote  on  mo▯ons,  Elect  generals,  Act  as  a  law  court   ü  Council  (Athenian  Name:  Boule)   o  Group  of  500;  50  provided  yearly  from  10   o  Athenian  Tribes   o  Meets  most  days  in  Bouleuterion  Agora   o  Establishes  agenda  for  assembly  mee▯ngs   o  Tribes  take  turns  providing  organiza▯on  group  of  50   o  Eat,  live  on-­‐call  in  Tholos   •  Judiciary   ü  Demes  yearly  supply  thousands  of  candidates  (30  years  old)   ü  Various  juries  for  different  types  of  cases   ü  Juries  in  hundreds  to  thousands   ü  Areopagus  Court  for  murder  cases  (Mythical  trail  of  Orestes)   •  Magistrates   ü  Various  officials,  Commi▯ees  (day  to  day  func▯ons)   ü  Strategos:  10  generals  elected  each  year,  with  great  authority   ü  Lot:  Officials  &  Jury  selected  by  chance   ü  Pay:  For  all  aspects  of  government  service  (assembly  a▯endance)     •  Parthenon   ü  Pediments   ü  Frieze   ü  Metopes   ü  Gigantomachy  (Ba▯le  of  the  Giants)   ü  Centauromachy  (Ba▯le  of  the  Centaurs)   ü  Amazonomachy  (Ba▯le  of  the  Amazons)   ü  Temple  of  Nike   Peloponnesian  War  (431-­‐404)   •  Athenian  &  Spartan  Allies   •  Delos   •  Athenians  win  first  half  &  lose  second  half   •  Long  wall  policy   •  Bubonic  Plague  à  Death  of  Pericles   •  Peace  for  7  years  in  421   •  Disastrous  Sicilian  expedi▯on  415-­‐413   •  Oligarchic  Takeover  410  (Group  of  400)   •  Thetes  in  fleet  resist   •  Sparta  imposes  30  tyrants  (404)  &  democracy  restored   •  Sparta  dominant  for  30  years  (Athens  recovers)   th •  Thucydides  (mid  5 -­‐399)   ü  Different  goals  &  Methods  than  Herodotus   ü  Funeral  speech  of  Pericles  as  a  reported  speech   ü  Gives  analysis  of  Athenian  plague,  its  symptoms  &  consequences   ü  Hippocra▯c  Corpus  and  Jared  Diamond,  Guns,  Germs  and  Steel   ü  Melian  Debate  (Melos,  Ally  of  Sparta  sacked  by  Athens  (416))   ü  Men  killed,  Women  &  Children  Enslaved  (Given  choice  of  war/slavery)  =  Neutrality     •  Slaves  in  The  Golden  Age   ü  Domes▯c   ü  State  (Silver  Mines)   ü  Independent  Cra▯smen   ü  Rented  out  pros▯tutes  (hetairai)  (Demosthenes)   •  Women  in  Golden  Age  Athens   ü  Kyrios:  Male  Guardian   ü  Property  unusual   ü  Arranged  Marriage  à  Age  imbalance   ü  Domes▯c  Seclusion  an  ideal   ü  Oikos  (household)  management   ü  Ritual/Fes▯val  Par▯cipa▯on   •  Xenophon,  Oikonomikos   ü  Socra▯c  dialogue   ü  Training  a  new  wife  less  than  15  years  old   ü  Domes▯c  seclusion   ü  Platonic  dialogue,  misogynis▯c   ü  Scandals  with  women  being  outside   •  Macedon   ü  North  of  Thessaly,  West  of  Thrace   ü  Monarchy,  Court  at  Pella,  Tribes     •  Demosthenes  à  Against  Philip  unifying  Greece  &  A▯acking  Persia   •  Philip   ü  Defense  &  Expansion  of  Macedonia   ü  The  improved  phalanx   ü  Diplomacy  (Silver  &  Gold)   ü  Tensions  with  Athens   ü  Chaeronea,  League  of  Greeks   ü  Assassinated  336   •  Alexander  The  Great   ü  Tutored  by  Aristotle   ü  King  at  20,  Raises  Rebellious  Thebes   ü  Subdues  Asia  Minor   ü  Takes  Egypt  (Alexandria  founded,  Visit  to  the  Shrine  of  Amen)   ü  Takes  over  Persian  empire   ü  Disasterous  Return   ü  Death  in  323   •  Breakdown    of  Empire  into  Hellenis▯c  Kingdoms   ü Ptolemaic  (Egypt)à  Ends  with  Cleopatra’s  Death   ü Seleucid  (NE  Mesopotamia  “Persia”  à  Taken  by  Rome)   ü An▯gonid  (Macedon&  North  Greeceà  Taken  by  Rome)   ü Pergamum  (Spread  of  Greek  Culture:  koine)   ü To  create  a  Cosmopolitan  &  Utopian  Vision  of   Globalized  Egypt     •  Alexander   ü Self  Control   ü Temper  =  Bad  Press   ü Cultural  Act  of  Comadarie   ü Imposi▯on  of  Military  Culture  on  Na▯ve  Culture   ü Alexander  Romance:  Travelled  over  the  world  to  met   supernatural  beings   Hellenis▯c  Culture   •  Sciences:  Con▯nuing  astronomical,  geographical,  engineering  &  medical   advances   •  Book  Culture:  Publishing,  Educa▯on,  Academic  Works,  Libraries   (Alexandria)   •  New  aesthe▯c  in  literature  (humble,  local)   •  Art  (Realism)  &  Architecture  (Grandeur)   •  Hellenis▯c  Literature   ü  Local,  Non  Heroic   ü  Academic/Scholar  Poets  (Apollonius)   ü  Argonau▯ca  (Heroic  Travel  Taleà  Emo▯ons  of  young  Medea   ü  Menander:  New  Comedy  (bourgeois  situa▯onal  comedy)   ü  Theocritus   o  Pastoral  Genre:  Shepherds  in  love  (i.e.  Pastoral  Polyphemus)   •  Hellenis▯c  Art   ü  Mosaics   ü  Corinthian  Column/  Monumental  Art  (Acropolis  in  Pergamum)     •  Astronomy  &  Science   ü  An▯kythera  Machine  (Bronze  gears  for  astronomical  calcula▯ons,   Shipwreck)   •  Language  of  Hellenis▯c  World:  koine   •  Philosophy  &  Religion   ü  Zeno,  Stoicism  (order/ra▯onality/fate/virtue)   ü  Epicurus,  Epicureanism   o  Atoms,  Natural  Science   o  Freedom  from  pain  (De  Rurum  Natura)   o  Diogenes,  Cynicism   •  Neo-­‐Platonism   •  Astrology   •  Syncre▯sm  (Serapis/Zeus/Amen/Helios)   •  Egyp▯an  Isis:  Greco  Roman  Cult  of  Demeter   •  Deifica▯on  of  Kings  (Ruler  Cult)  Alexander,  Son  of  Amen   •  Greek  Religion   ü  State,  Public   ü  Pan-­‐Hellenic  Centers:  Delos  (Apollo),  Olympia  (Zeus,  Olympic   Games),  Delphi  (Oracular  Apollo)   ü  Public  Buildings  (Parthenon)à  priests/priestesses   ü  Public  Fes▯vals  (Games,  Theaters,  Processions,  Sacrificial  Feasts)   •  Homeric  Hymns   ü  Homericà  Epic  Verse   ü  Divine  Characters   ü  Divine  Origins,  Honours,  Narra▯ve   •  Mystery  Cults   ü  Devo▯on  to  a  specific  God   ü  Ini▯a▯on  into  a  closed  group   ü  Secret  rituals   ü  Loosening  of  Social  boundaries  perhaps  special  a▯erlife   ü  ELEUSIS:  Demeter  &  Persephone  (Two  Goddesses)   •  Hero  Cult   ü  Local,  Deified  Heroes   ü  Asclepius  (hero/God)   ü  Kos:  Asclepian  Complex   ü  Shrine  of  Asclepius  (Epidarusà  Personal  Need   •  Italian  Peninsula   ü  Adria▯c  Sea;  Ionian  Sea;  Tyrrhenian  Sea   ü  Apennine  Mountain  Range;  Alps  (North)   ü  Etruria;  La▯um;  Campania;  Magna  Graecia   •  Non-­‐Roman  Peoples  (North  &  South)   ü  Carthaginians  (Roman  Ageà  Queen  Dido)   ü  Greeks:  Sicily  (Magna  Graecia)   ü  Celts:  North  of  Alps:  North  Italy   ü  Etruscans:  Dominant  in  North  Italian  Peninsula   o  Influenced  by  Greeks:  Alphabet;  Tumuli   o  Ini▯ally  dominated  Rome  (augury)   Early  Rome   •  Prehistoric  (Roman  History  ca.  200  BC)   •  Growing  village;  Trade  with  Greeks   •  Livy’s  Etruscan  Kings  may  be  semi-­‐Historical   •  Forum,  Temple  to  Jupiter/Juno   •  Origins  of  Rome   ü  Greek  Myth:  Aeneas  escapes  Troy,  Wanders,  Marries  Italic  Na▯ve  Princess   Lavinia   ü  Voila:  Romans   ü  Italian  Legend:  Romulus  &  Remus  (raised  by  wolf,  survive,  Romulus  founds   city)   ü  Presto:  Romans   ü  Odysseus  founded  Rome  with  Aeneas   ü  Livy’s  History;  Vergil’s  Aeneid   •  Vergil   st ü  Late  1  c.  BC,  Augustan  Period   ü  Aeneas  survives  Trojan  War  &  Takes
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