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Midterm Terms

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University of Toronto St. George

Balder • Norse god who otherwise invulnerable, is slain by mistletoe and then burned on his ship • Misteltoe acts as an “external soul” • Frazer uses him as an example to connect the Grove of Nemi branch to mistletoe Bellerophon • King Proetus wifeAnteia spurned by Bellerophon accuses him of attempted rape and incites her husband to murder him (Potiphar’s wife motif) • But Proetus shrinks from direct violence because Bellerophon is his suppliant and guest, and protected by xenia • So he dispatches Bellerophon to his (Proetus’) father-in-law Iobates, with a sealed tablet containing written instructions to kill the bearer • But Bellerophon is first entertained as a guest for nine days before the message is looked at, at which point he is once again protected by xenia • Iobates sends him on a series of fantastic, suicidal missions (e.g., Chimera) with the hopes that he gets murdered indirectly • Bellerophon succeeds in them all, and Iobates recognizes his worth and gives his daughter in marriage as an alliance convergence Demodocus • In B8 of Odyssey there are a series of myths told by the bard Demodocus (aiodos) when Odysseus is being feasted by Alkinoos • He is aided by the muses, and god to lend accuracy to stories Diomedes • Diomedes threatens to harm anyone, so long as they are not a god. He has internalized the story of the hubristic Lycurgus in a way that makes him respect the gods. • He falls upon Glaukos, who tells him the story of the hero Bellerophon • This story validates Glaukos’own worth, being descendant from the hero (many Greek myth were created and told to justify descendants) • Glaukos story leads Diomedes to recognize a relationship of hereditary guest-friendship between himself and his antagonist, through Glaukos’grandfather Bellerophon and Diomedes grandfather Oeneus. So he can’t kill him on account of xenia • The story also reinforces the importance of honoring the ties of hospitality, imposing an end to violence through negotiation • Diomedes responds by offering a pact of friendship, and they exchange their armor Dumézil • 20 cent. • Politically conservative, and the Indo-European Ideology he identifies can seem monarchical • Exhaustively studied both religion and mythology of the Indo-European peoples and was interested primarily in Roman and Indian • His comparative studies led him to posit a fundamental tripartite division within the original Indo-European society (or social ideology). This is the Trifunctional Hypothesis. It is a division reflected in the religion and mythology of many diverse Indo-European cultures.Adivision between three basic social functions: • Sovereignty: religion, magic and law, justice • King or priest/magician, lawyer • Warfare: physical strength/power and physical violence • Warrior elite • Production: production of food/wealth and beauty, sex, reproduction • Farmers, craftsmen, traders, women • This division is related to India’s Caste System, of which there were four varnas. The highest three being: • Brahmins: priests (sovereignty) • Kshatriyas: warriors (warfare) • Vaishyas: agriculturists/traders (production) • Anumber of Indo-European cultures have a core set of gods who reflect the three functions • Dumezil identifies a pattern of war between functions, specifically the 1 and 2 functions rd at war with the 3 • An enduring stable order is created when these two opposing factions are permanently reconciled and integrated Endymion • According to Muller, Endymion means the setting sun, and he was loved by Selene (moon) • Indo-Europeans used to say that the moon loves the setting sun (setting sun, rising moon) • People forgot what that meant, but the words persisted, become names of these characters Hera • Queen of the gods, consort of Zeus Hippolytus • Devout ofArtemis • Killed and then resurrected
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