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CLA 310 Midterm Review Fall 2012

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Susan Dunning

CLA 310 Rlg Roman World S. Dunning 09/12 10/03 2012 Midterm Review - What is RELIGION? o It is personal, not institutional o Belief is important to religion ( in something greater than oneself) o Some system of ethics o (Involves) traditions and rituals o Involves a figurehead o Incorporates a narrative to explain world/ afterlife o Communication with a deity o Promote human relations o Involves sacrifice of some aspect of oneself (e.g., time, resources) o Involves important (sacred) text o Involves a figurehead/founder - Romans didnt have an official text o They have a collection of prayers and hymns - Communication through priests, prayers, being in a temple, sacrifices - Politics and religion go hand-in-hand in Roman times - Rome has no single founder of religion - Religion is open to change - Rome = Christianity vs. Paganism - Greek religion valued personal interaction with gods while Roman religion does not **SMALL EXCERP,DISCUSSION - Gendered sacrifice - In performing sacrifice, pater gods were honoured (e.g., Mars Pater, Summanus Pater, Janus Pater) - There is a structure to days and locations for rituals and sacrifices - Gods invoked in rituals are specific to the situation that they are called for - Rituals are always BIG events - Sacrifices can be done for purification (e.g., in sullied sacred ground) - There is an order (hierarchy) in which invoked deities receive tribute/sacrifice - Imperial cult prominent in Rome i.e., worship of emperors - Prodigy is a type of communication initiated by deity - System of distributing sacrificial meat - Trespassing into a sacred area (e.g., Dea Dias grove) or to show respect in visiting requires sacrifice o Messing up a sacred area needs an appeasement sacrifice - Grove of Dea Dia is special and so is her sacrifice (suovetaurillia = full-grown pig, ran and bull) o First and last sacrifices are the most elaborate - Lares: deities of households and crossroads - Cult managers of Dea Dia = Arval Brothers (Fratres Arvales) o Perform in-house duties, sacrifices and rites, etc. - The writing is more concerned with the sacrifice not the transgression, which means that what was done to the sacred grove of Dea Dia is not that big of a deal (i.e., clearing up the lightning-struck tree with iron) o Adding the detail of the use of iron implies that someone knew what they were doing might be harmful - The term to deity is used just in case they forgot a deity - Wether = castrated ram/bull (?) - Adolenda = deity of the felling of the trees CLA 310 Midterm Rev 2 - Coinquenda = deity of the burning of the trees o Augenblickgotten (?) - In religiously significant situations, it is inherent in Roman Religion that they invoke the all of the correct deities associated with the situation - Iron perceived as unclean to sacred areas - Roman religion interested in space o Rounds of the bounds purifies (i.e., walking around the perimeter) Also re-establishes boundary of the sacred RELIGION AR OME - Personal belief - Explanatory narrative - Figurehead / founder - Sacrifice (of time, attention, energy, material goods) - Communication with the supernatural - Formation of human ties and identities - Specialists - Traditions and rituals - Addresses questions of what happens after death **Italics = meant something different to the Romans Vocab - Cultus (from colere) - Religio (from religare) - Superstitio (from superstare) - Deus, dea - Numen - Sacer - Sanctus - Cultus (from to take care of) o Worship according to a particular type of ritual dedicated to a particular deity o Small, specific kind of group worship o Unique rituals and practices centred around a deity (that may be antisocial) - Religio (from binding together) o Obligating the gods o Gives god what theyre due o Practice of contracting with gods o Abstract term regarding what you should do for the gods - Superstitio (to stand over) o Things you dont mean to do for the gods o Doing more than you need to for the gods o Negative connotation E.g., Christians are superstitious because they are doing more than they have to (i.e., worshipping another god) o Doing rites uncalled for when time is better used somewhere else - Deus / dea o (god(dess)) o Goes all the way back to ancient (early) Roman times o Personalized powers in the supernatural realm o Gendered entities CLA 310 Midterm Rev 3 - Numen o General divine power o Reason for (numen theory of) animism - Sacer / sanctus o Sacred, holy o Sacer ~ property of the gods ~ person(s) If person declared sacer no repercussions for those who kill you (can get sacrificed) OR in devotio (general sacrificing / devoting self to the chthonic gods along with the enemy for victory) Generals death taken as a sign that the gods favour your side (Roman) o Sanctus = holy / sacred Property of the gods ~ objects E.g., walls of the city o **Dont use interchangeably** - Outline of Roman History o Regal, (Early / Mid / Late) Republic, Augustan period, (Early / Late) Empire - Regal period overthrown 509 BC - Republic ruled by the Senate, consuls, tribune, etc. who were elected in position (power concentrated in the upper classes) somewhat democratic o Senate and the people (symbols of the Rep) o Territorial expansion, overseas wars, naval supremacy and military achievements define the period o Acquisition of foreign influence importation of foreign, art, literature, philosophy, etc. - Rome flourished because of having citizen soldiers o Have something to look forward to after war o But power became concentrated, soldiers want to be professionalized (make it into a career) and given certain rights ~ hand support to one who satisfy their needs conflict within Rome, power struggles - Augustus quelled unrest, introduced certain reforms, concentrated power to one ruler imperator - Rome started to lose status as capital city because it was difficult to manage such a big empire from there (too far west compared to most of its territory) - Roman empire later split into West and East Byzantium the capital of the Eastern half Sources for early Roman religion - Historians - Literature - Calendars - Consular lists - Pontifical records (fragmentary) priestly - Material evidence - Romans, like Greeks, considered History as a genre o Literature ~ poetry - Mid Rep, Aeneas, myth of Romulus and Remus survived in fragments - But is there continuity? Calendars - Describe which days are (feasts), holidays, work-days, festivals - Capital letter festivals = older, more important Roman festivals - Supposedly formed by King Numa (2 nd king) CLA 310 Midterm Rev 4 Consular Lists - Goes all the way back from Augustan Period to the very first consuls - Common to date by consul Pontifical records - Pontifices record little changes, notes, accounts on annals o Sometimes cited by historians - Biased to what the pontifices think was important at the time not all inclusive (very selective) Material Evidence - Statues, temple ruins, votive offerings, etc. - Inscriptions, art - Votive offerings given in exchange as a vow o Act as thanksgiving for god curing ailment o Contractual offering o Votum (vota, pl.) Foundation of Rome - Close to the island of Tiber, adjacent to the Field of Mars and the Tiber River - Pomerium surrounds the city of Rome o Sacred boundary supposedly established by Romulus o Extended when the Romans acquired more territory - Capitoline, Palatine and Aventine the three most important hills o Oldest cults, oldest temples on the Capitoline and Aventine o Palatine popularized in the Augustan period, temples built on it Greek / Etruscan influence - Magna Graecia Greek settlement - located on the southern tip of Italy and had contact with the early settlers of Rome o No doubt that they have interacted as early as the foundation of Rome - Inherited Greek myths, absorbed and internalized aspects of Greek religion - Etruscans also influenced temples, sacred art, deities of Roman religion - Roman supposedly inferior to the E
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