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Midterm Notes

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Vocabulary Cultus (from colere): from verb meaning to take care/attend to Agroup (college) to worship certain deities E.g. Cult of Juno Regina Pliny calls early Christians cultus Nowadays has derogatory meaning but this was not so in ancient Rome Religio (from religare): from latin word meaning binding together Refers to obligation to/from gods, thereby giving gods their due Abstract term for anything you do toward the gods Superstitio (from superstare): from verb meaning to stand over Things you do on top of your additional duties to the gods; going above and beyond the call of duty Pliny might come to refer to Jews or Christians as superstitious as their beliefs interfere with everyday life Negative connotation Deus, Dea Go back to early Roman language Some people want to argue that early Romans only worshipped abstract nature powers, but these words prove that they had concept of personified power Has gender (m/f) Numen (p. numena) General divine power Sacer Often used to describe something made legally the property of the god Taken very seriously If a person is declared sacer, it was bad - seen as punishment Devatio Ceremony where general declares himself, and the legions of the enemy to chthonic gods in a sacrifice to help the Romans This was a morality boost for Roman troops Sanctus Translated as holy, or sacred Used in origins to refer to physical property given over to the gods E.g., plot of ground, temple, etc Something sanctus need not be sacer but it could be vice versa Pomerium The boundary of the city of Rome Very sacred Considered sanctus Sacrosanctus property of the god and protected from disturbance by the community Divi deified person Parilia associated with purification, in which people burn sulfur. Originated from the country where they were asking protection for the sheep Equus October (October Horse) a holocaust offering of a horse. This was unusual as horses were not seen as food for romans, nor are they commonly offered. Offered to Mars, god of War, therefore associated with chthonic deities (killing and slaughter). Horses play military role, thus linked to the deity. Ludi Romani Earliest ludi Ambarvalia Dea Dia, who is associated with Ceres, was honored at this festival. Related to theArval Brethren Compitalia the Lares Compitalis were minor deities, the counterparts of household gods. They were out at crossroads and neighborhoods and made entire areas of the city sacred. This shows us that gods were everywhere, even in the rural areas. They are important asAugustus renames all of them the LaresAugustiin a feat of self-promotion Parentalia and Lemuria The dead ancestors, and worship of them. The Lemuria were associated with darker spirits as sometimes those who die are not good or benevolent, and will continue on in such a manner. They are the more spooky and ghost-like and had to be appeased. Holocaust An offering in which the whole animal was burnt Templum An sacred area that doesnt necessarily have a temple Aedes Abuilding which is sacer, on the templum Religiosus defined the property of the chthonic (lower world) gods. Can be applied to people and may imply mild superstitio Sources for Early Roman Religion Histories and Literature: often separated by centuries from the time it covers. Based off priestly records Calendars: to account for feasts and festivals and days for work and leisure. Capital and lower case festivals. Speculation is that the capitals are the oldest and most important? Or did the capitals come from Numas original calendar? The latter may be too big of a jump. If the Romans did make this attribution there is obviously not a real, perfect succession Consular lists: sometimes called consular fasti, they are lists of all people who held office of consul. They help us fill in and flesh out literary material and we can use consular years to date events. Pontifical records: these fragmentary priestly records were written by pontifices which is a particular priestly office. They are annals, recording change year by year. Sometimes later authors cite these nuggetsof information. Material evidence: by which is meant archaeological evidence. These include ruins, statues, inscriptions etc. One handy piece of archaeological evidence includes votive offerings, which pro- vide evidence for individual religion where a lot of sources focus more on society at large. Votives represent the ailment healed (such as a foot), or are a simple inscription put up on a temple for pos- terity, that, when read aloud, furthers the offertory nature. They are given for vows, exchanges, etc. Foundations of Rome There are seven hills in total: Quirinal Hill Virinal Hill Capitoline Hill (which houses oldest cults and temples) Palatine Hill (with more focus onAugusts) Aventine Hill Caelian Hill Esquiline Hill Field of Mars Servian Wall (pomerium?) Sacred, supposedly built by Romulus Extended when territory increased Religious boundaries increased with regional River Tiber, which becomes god in own right Outside Influence Greeks: close relationship with Greeks. Greek colonization in Southern Italy - Magna Grae- cia (Great Greece), as such we have a conflict between the traditional founding dates and the colonization of Italy by the Greeks.As a result there was a lot of contact between the Greeks and Romans. The Greeks were highly active in this area, and the Romans were obviously exposed to this (and thereby influenced). Etruscan: The Romans thought the Etruscans were older, and they they were once ruled by them. Though the Etruscans are linguistically dissimilar to both Greek and Italian, the Romans ab- sorbed this culture. In fact, of the 7 traditional kings, 2 were Etruscan (Tarquin the Elder, and Tar- quin the Proud). Similarities are seen between art, architecture and religion, with the examples of (a), statues on the roofs of temples, and (b) the likeliness of Minerva to an Etruscan goddess. (c) One of the most important adopted Etruscan practices was that of Haruskepeis, the looking at entrails to divine omens.Although identified as other, being originally an Etruscan practice (which perhaps the Etruscans may not have entirely recognized as their own), it was deemed essen- tial. Important characters Aeneas: son ofAphrodite andAnchises and prince in Troy. During the burning of Troy he car- ried his father and the ancestral gods out of the city. This action embodied pietos - duty towards family and gods, and was something that Romans should aspire to. He is considered the 1st founder of Rome and thus, extremely important. He was responsible for merging the Latins and Trojans, and establishing a city near to Rome and building the beginnings of Roman culture. Later Augustus claims ancestry toAeneas through the Julii clan.
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