CLA204 COMPLETE LECTURE NOTES

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA204H1
Professor
Regina Hoeschele
Semester
Winter

Description
Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 LECTURE 1 Introduction “Classical” Mythology– Greco Roman Antiquity th  4 Century BC – expansion of Greek empire  The Hellenistic Age  Roman empire came in, took over the Greek empire  Influence of Latin  The Emperial Age o Starts with Augustus What is “Mythology”?  “Myth” comes from the Greek  “Mythos”: word, speech, conversation, tale, story, narrative – can be true or false  “Logos”: word, speech, meaning, argument, reason, rationality – associated with truth (“logic”) What is a “Myth”?  A traditional tale with secondary, partial reference to something of collective importance  Something that has been orally transmitted through decades  Concerned Gods, heroes, natural phenomena  No specific authors – has been passed down  Myths all have a function, not just for fun o Myths are not written to be applied to be applied to a particular context, but they are made, and THEN they are applied o Unlike a FABLE, which is made to apply to various contexts  Myths concern general phenomena, something that all people want to know, origin of the cosmos, etc  2 kinds of memory: living and cultural o Living: expands back to just a few generations  Ie. In 20 years, people from WW1 would be dead, and the kids there would hear about the War from living people o Cultural: cannot be tied to individual  Greek myths in general are told about family, Gods, mortals, origin of the cosmos, heroes, animals, – all to explain the world  Undefinable by human chronology  There are many many many versions of stories  Versions today may not be the true version, since stories changed as time went by  Myths can be changed depending on the author and stuff, like if I’m writing another edition of a myth, and I like Apollo, I might praise Apollo more in my story  Sexuality are very embraced in mythology  “Theogony” o “Theos” = Gods + “Gony” = Origin ==== the birth of the Gods  Homer’s and Hesiod’s work were one of the first things that were written down because they were recent and had the alphabet o Homer was considered the BEST in literature, no one could compare, very famous o Hesiod – Didactic Epics (Works and Days, Theogony) Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 GODS  The Twelve Olympians  Zeus o Most important God o Called “Jupiter” also in Greek o Married to Hera, who is also his sister o Likes to sleep around with other women  Uranus (Oronos) -> Cronus (Kronos) -> Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hestia, Poseidon -> Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes  Called Twelve Olympians because they were told to be living in Mount Olympus o A real physical place o Tallest mountain in Greece o Sort of like a “heaven” Invoking the Muse  The tales of the Muses have influenced countless art  “Apollo and the Muses” o Apollo – God of Poetry o The thing on his head is from a Loral o Loral = Daphne o Daphne was a muse who Apollo was chasing and was turned into a tree, Apollo made his Loral from her o Apollo holding a Lire, ancient Greek instrument  Mother of the Muses  Each of the muses is identified with a certain area  KLEIO – I narrarate/celebrate – history  MELPOMENE – songstress – tragedy  TERPSICHORE – delighting in the dance – dance  THALERIA –  The Muses are the daughters of Memory o Because they are responsible to remember o Not responsible for objects, but for performance, art, poetry, etc o Like a MUSEum  Atreus – Son of Agamemnon  TROY was really based on the ANGER of Achilles o Agamemnon takes Achilles’ slave girl – Breseis, and makes Achilles mad o When Agamemnon takes Breseis, that insults Achilles, as a hero, not a lover o When someone takes something of yours, your HONOUR is taken o Mad at Agamemnon, he threatens to leave, then has to stay because his cousin Patrocleus is killed o Thetus, Mother of Achilles, pleads for her son to Zeus – “the will of Zeus” Catalogue of Ships  At the beginning of the Iliad  Introduces all the Greek heroes and their ships  “Danaans” > another word for “Greeks”, different Greek tribe  “Aegis of Zeus” > his shield, protection Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 Hesiod’s Heliconian Muses  “Let us begin our singing from the Helikonian Muses who posess the great and holy mountain of Helikon and dance there on soft feet by the dark blue water of the spring, and by the altar of the powerful son of Kronos”  The Hesiod starts with the Muses  The Hesiod is the book of beginnings  Hesiod is from a village in front of Mount Helikon Hesiod’s poetic investiture  How did Hesiod become a poet  Hesiod is tending his sheep at Mount Helikon, and the Muses come  They insult him first, “…nothing but bellies” – only concerned with food and the lowly things of life  “The first word of all the goddesses” – the telling the very very beginning of everything  The stories can be metaphorical  “they bring gifts by noble men” – these men are capable of speaking well, etc  Hymn to the Muses o “Hymn” – song of praise to God, not human o Hymns were sort of attached to a book to introduce a book, and to also tell what will happen in the book  The MUSE is also mentioned in various other works o Paradise Lost by John Milton  The expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden (paradise)  “Sing, Heavenly Muse”  “The Shepherd” – refers back to Hesiod o Song of the Exposition by Walt Witman  Brings the Muses from Greece to America  “Come, Muse, migrate from Greece”  Says that America is the best, forget Europe, and come here  A modern Muse Cosmogony  The Theogony begins with the creation of the cosmos  Followed by genealogies, and then succession, how Zeus came to be  Also how the world was created  In our tradition, there is a God who designs the world  In Greek Mythology, there is no one God  Teleology  Families – one God sleeps with sibling, has children, children kills dad, etc  Personifications of powers o Ie. “Night” is a goddess  Theogony moves from the undefined to the increasingly defined  Starts with Chaos – “there was NOTHING but Chaos” o Big emptiness of nothing, then SOMETHING came o Chaos – the big gaping yawn/emptiness  Then SOMETHING came from the nothing – Gaia o Gaia is Earth o Defines space Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  Eros – the power of new generation, procreation o We picture Cupid when we think of Eros o This is totally not what he looks like here  Gaia, without any sex, brings Uranus (sky) then he becomes her sex partner, bringing forth a new generation o The Titans o The Cyclops  Aphrodite o (Hesiod’s version) Kronos castrates Uranus and throws it in the sea, Aphrodite rises out of the foam o Anadyomene – “rising out of the water” o Naked, but trying to cover herself o Other various texts tell Aphrodite as Zeus’ daughter, and Eros’ mother LECTURE 2 REVIEW  4 primordial beings o Chaos: yawning emptiness (engenders Erebos + Night), from which come Aither + Hemera -> beginning of time) o Gaia: terra firma, first defined space, “unshakable foundation”, gives birth to further beings (see below) o Tartarus: below earth (cf. also Tartarus passage 729-819 and the description of the threshold where Day and Night meet) o Eros: productive power, will later become subordinate to Aphrodite  The children of Gaia o Gaia (without consort) = Uranus + Mountaint (+nymphs) + Pontus o Gaia + Uranus = 12 Titans + 3 Cyclops + 3 Hecatonchires o Gaia + Tartarus = Typhoeus (cf. vv. 820ff)  Mnemosyne (one of the titans) is mother of the Muses (from Mnemosyne and Zeus) The Succession Myth – Zeus and Prometheus Female and the male  Female provides change  Gaia is always in favour of change, the younger overthrowing the older  Youngest son overthrows fathers twice (Kronos) until Zeus, he’s smarter than that  Eris – Gaia not wanting Uranus’ passion and drive Zeus  When Zeus impregnates Metis, he doesn’t want to be overthrown so he swallows the baby The Furies (Erinyes)  They are born out of the blood of Uranus’s castration  The other two creatures that come from the blood is the Giants and Ash Nymphs o There is a version of writing that says that humankind came from the Giants + Ash Nymphs Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 Styx  The one who will contribute to Zeus’ triumphs  Has powerful children: Victory, Power, Force  One of the first to join Zeus in his battle Hecate  Goddess of boundaries  Accociated with the Night, the Moon, she  If she had a legitimate offspring, he could overpower Zeus  Supports Zeus’ regime  Hecate’s (who supports Zeus) story comes right before Zeus and his ascension, and then right after comes the story of Prometheus (who revolts against Zeus) ZEUS  Kronos is afraid of being overthrown by his children, so he eats his children  Rheia is the mother of the children  So Rheia asks Kronos’ parents (Uranus and Gaia) for help  Since Gaia always supports the younger generation, Gaia helps her  Gaia takes Rheia away, successfully give birth to a baby (ZEUS), Gaia hides him in the Earth  Rheia goes back to Kronos, gives him a rock wrapped in baby cloth, and Kronos swallows the stone (the Omphalos)  The Omphalos – the stone swallowed by Kronos – means “the Navel of the Earth)  Zeus sets the Cyclopes free – they create the thunderbolt for Zeus  Then Zeus becomes the King of immortals and mortals Greek and Hittite Succession Myth in Comparison 1. Heaven rules as King (Uranus/Anu) 2. Kronos/Kumarbi rises against him and castrates him 3. Kronos/Kumarbi swallows what is a threat to him 4. Kronos/Kumarbi cannot hold what he has swallowed 5. Kronos/Kumarbi is defeated and displaced by the storm-god (Zeus)  Transfer of kingship from Heaven to the ruling god of the pantheon. The two versions have evolved their own additional crystallizations (Alalu at the beginning of the Hittite tale/ correspondences of excess and retribution in Hesiod)  Greek myth somehow was influenced by near Eastern mythology Titanomachy (the battle of the Titans)  The previous generation, the Titans, want to overthrow Zeus  They attack Olympus  Zeus knows how to ward them off because he hears that the Hecatonchires (100-armed giants) will help him, so Zeus sets them free  Zeus isn’t as strong as the Titans, but he gets the really powerful Hecatonchires on his side, which allows him to protect his regime  It’s like how he frees the Cyclopes – they formed his thunderbolt  Hesiod tells first of the Cyclopes, then the Hecatonchires – these stories frame the binding of Prometheus Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  After all of this happens, Gaia mates with Tartarus, creates monster Typhoeus  Zeus knows something is up, and battles Typhoeus – to eliminate a potential successor  Typhoeus is the youngest of Gaia’s children  Zeus defeats Typhoeus, and Gaia (earth) melts – Zeus wins over Gaia also Gigantomachy (battle of the Giants)  Not mentioned in the Hesiod  The Giants were created from the blood of Uranus’ castration  Man + snake body  NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH THE TITANOMACHY Prometheus  Story of Prometheus is told in the Hesiod right after Zeus came to power Theogony Version  Iapetius – father of Prometheus  Epimetheus, Apollo are the other sons  PROmetheus (one who plans and does things), EPImetheus (one who does stupid things and realizes it afterwards)  Prometheus tries to trick Zeus  Gives Zeus 2 portions of meat, one good looking version with bones inside, and one bad looking version with good meat  Zeus takes the bones on purpose, gets mad, and takes away FIRE from mortals  Prometheus, who is on the side of humanity, steals the fire, brings it to the mortals  Zeus realizes, gives vengeance: WOMAN  Women = “the worst thing” = evil  Zeus creates a woman (no name), Hephaestus and Athena helps him  GIVING and TAKING AWAY is apparent a lot Works and Days Version  Called Works and Days because there are 2 parts: 1. How to Work, 2. What to do on the Days Not focused on Gods, but human beings First work that has the author himself in the book (Hesiod + his brother Perses (not Perseus)) Corrects some stuff that he wrote in the Theogony o Ie. Two kinds of strife (Eris) instead of only 1 in Theogony – one is good, one is bad  Does not mention the cheating of Prometheus and Zeus, because it’s not a book focused on the Gods  Zeus takes away the fire, Prometheus steals back the fire  Zeus makes Pandora, the woman  Pandora also has a JAR, full of evils  Zeus sends Pandora to Epimetheus, although Prometheus told him not to ever accept a gift from Zeus o Pandora because she is gifted something by all the gods o “Pan” means “all” = “dora” means “giving”  Pandora opens the jar (her purpose), and all the evils are spread out to the world o Jar also symbolizes the vagina = evil o Round, contains things Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  HOPE remains in the jar o We do not know exactly why o At least Hope was presented to the world o Why would Hope still stay in the jar? o Hope maybe another kind of evil, since it keeps people hoping and waiting = evil?  In other versions, Prometheus is the creator of humans  Heracles sets Prometheus free from the eagle, and Zeus is not mad, he is FOR it because Heracles is Zeus’ son and this is great honour for Heracles  Prometheus prophesizes that Thetus will create a son that is stronger than the father  Zeus is okay with Peleus (human) sleeping with Thetus and creating Achilles, because Zeus doesn’t mind Achilles being stronger than a mortal Another Version in Hesiod’s Works and Days  “Or, if you will, I will outline it for you in a different story, Well and knowledgeably – store it up in your understanding – the beginning of things, which were the same for gods as for mortals” – W&D 106-108  The 5 Ages of Man o Golden Age (under Kronos) - No sorrows, youth, peace, harmony, gods and men mingle, unable to procreate (no women), death = falling asleep - Didn’t work out because there was no women o Silver Age (under Zeus) - 100 years childhood, strife, refusal to worship Zeus, destroyed by him - Didn’t work out because women didn’t really work out o Bronze Age - War, violence, strength, metallurgy, destroyed each other - Didn’t work out because they were too violent o Heroic Age (Thebes/Troy) - Better than the previous age, demi-gods, Justice and agriculture, goes to the Island of the Blest after death - Humans are too close to the gods, this is a problem o Iron Age (Hesiod’s time) - Toil, misery, injustice, envy, though still a mixture of good and evil (Hesiod foresees a more dire Age in the future)  Aition is told to explain why a certain custom/ritual arose o To explain current phenomena, rights, festival  Both versions are very similar with some differences, and he tells another story in W&D, with the different Ages of Man LECTURE 3 Heroic Sagas  Individual heroes and their exploits o PERSEUS (son of Zeus and Danae): slays Medusa, frees Andromeda o HERAKLES (son of Zeus and Alkmene): 12 labors, etc o THESEUS (son of AIGEUS/Poseison and Aithra): slays various cillains and the Minotaur  Cycles centered around specific cities, families or exploits Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 o THEBAN CYCLE – includes Oedipus, Seven Against Thebes, Epigoni o ARGONAUTS – quest for the Golden Fleece, Jason and Medea o TROJAN WAR o NOSTOI – return of the Greek heroes from Troy, e.g. Odysseus TROJAN WAR  What started the Trojan war? (the root of all evil…a woman) HELEN  “starting ab ovo” = “from the egg” = means from when someone was born o Because Helen was born from an egg o Zeus transformed into a swan and had sex with LEDA o She laid an egg  Helen, the most beautiful on Earth, born from Zeus the Swan and Leda  Dios curi – “the sons of Zeus”  Peleus and Thetis’s marriage o Eris (strife) was not invited, so she throws the apple of Discord during the wedding o Athena, Aphrodite, Hera fight about the apple o Zeus asked Paris to judge the 3 women o The women promise Paris  Hera – power  Athena – win of war  Aphrodite – most beautiful wife o Paris picks Aphrodite o So Helen follows Paris to Troy, makes Agamemnon and Menelaus mad o And Athena and Hera hates the Trojans  Epigram – a poetic form that was put onto tombstones or dedications  Important figured in the Trojan War The Illiad  The Illiad was composed around 800 BC – in the Archaic period  The first work written down on paper  Considered the best piece of literature at the time  Xenophanes (ca. 5790475 BC) critiques Hesiod’s and Homer’s representation of the gods: Homer and Hesiod attributed to the gods everything which among humans is disgrace and reproach: stealing, adultery, and mutual deceit” “Everyone forms gods in their own image” HERA  Roman name: Juno  Daughter of Kronos and Theia  Sister and wife of Zeus  Goddess of marriage  Symbols: diadem, scepter, bowl, pomegranate, peacock  Often portrayed as the jealous wife of Zeus and as opposing his children from other women (especially Herakles = “the glory of Hera”) The hieros gamos (seduction of Hera) of Zeus and Hera  Hera asks Aphrodite for a “girdle” kestos Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  Hera goes to Sleep for help: once I have sex with Zeus, pls make him fall asleep  Hera goes to Zeus on Ida, he cannot resist her o Hera, you are beautiful, even more beautiful than A, B, C, D… whom I slept with lol o Wife of Ixion: Dia (gives birth to Peirithoos) o Danae (birth to Perseus) o Europa (Minos, Phadamanthys) o Semele (Dionysos) o Alkmene (Herakles) o Demeter (Persephone) o Leto (Apollo, Artemis) The Rape of Europa  Epillion – a little Epic  Europa has a dream of two women, Asia and Europe  She goes out with her girlfriends, comes to a flowery meadow o In all texts, if there is a flowery meadow and girls, a rape will occur  She has a beautiful basket, which depicts the story of IO and ARGOS o Zeus has sex with her o Hera comes, omg wife is coming o So Zeus transforms Io into a cow o Hera asks for the beautiful cow o She gives him to Argos (has 100 eyes, will always guard Io) o Hermes comes, bores Argos so much that Argos falls asleep o Rescues Io the cow, swims across the sea as a cow, ends up in Egypt, transforms back into a woman o “the crossing of the cow” o Hera in the meantime, takes all the eyes of the Argos, puts them on the tail of a Peacock (the patterns of the peacock’s tail)  Zeus approaches Europa in the shape of a Bull  Europa climbs on top of the bull  Bull/Zeus runs away with Europa to Crete, Europe (DIRECT REVERSAL OF Io’s STORY)  “Mise en abyme” – device where a story is inserted into another story, which is a mirror image of the other story (ie. Cleopatra - Patrocleos  Io and Europa are from the same family, all loved by Bulls ZEUS, POSEIDON, HADES POSEIDON  Roman name: Neptune  God of the sea  “Earth-Shaker”  Symbol: trident  Associated with horses  On the side of the Greeks during the Trojan war  Persecutes Odysseus, because he blinded his son Polyphemos  After Hera tricks Zeus, Zeus is mad and asks Poseidon to stop the battle since he is the king  Poseidon is mad, says: Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 …since we are three brothers born by Rheia to Kronos, Zeus, and I, and the third is Hades, lord of the dead men. All was divided among us three ways, each given his domain.  Hippokampoi – horses with fishtails of Poseidon’s chariot HADES  “the Invisible One”  Also known as Pluton (the Rich One) hence the name Pluto  God of the underworld  Consort of Persephone (Abduction of Persephone, by Bernini)  Symbols: Cerberus (3 headed dog), cap of invisibility APHRODITE  Roman name: Venus  Epithete: Kypris, Kythereia  Born from member of Ouranos (from Hesiod) or daughter of Zeus and Dione (from Homer)  Goddess of love  Wife of Hephaistos  Mother of Eros  Mistress of Ares  Mortal lovers: Anchises (bears son Arneas) and Adonis  Trojan War: Abducts Paris/Alexandros right before the battle with Menelaus, tells Helen to get ready for sex  She’s the one who removes Helen from Menelaus, starts war Ares and Aphrodite  Aphrodite is married to Hephaistos, the crippled god  She is not happy about her husband, so she takes on a lover, Ares  Hephaistos is suspicious, becomes invisible in his net, catches Aphrodite and Ares in bed together  Hephaistos calls out all the gods to come watch, the gods laugh, are not serious at all HYMN TO APHRODITE Aphrodite and Anchises LECTURE 4 ATHENA, APOLLO AND ARTEMIS, HERMES AND THE UNDERWORLD  Succession myth – Uranus, Kronos, Zeus  Zeus’ ascension to power is the central part of the Theogony, and then he takes several women, makes various offspring – like Athena, conceived by Metis  There is a saying that the son born from Metis after a daughter will overpower Zeus, so he swallows Metis to prevent this from happening  The Divine Offsprings of Zeus o Metis: Athena (born from Zeus’ head) o Themis: 2 Horai = Seasons *Eunomia, Dike, Eirene), 3 Moirai = Fates (Klotho, Lachesis, Atropos) – the ones who takes control of your lifespan, cuts the thread of life and you die Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 o Euronyme: 3 Charites = Graces (Aglaia, Euphrosyne, Thalia) o Demeter: Persephone (later kidnapped and raped by Hades) o Mnemosyne (“memory”) : 9 Muses o Leto: Apollo and Artemis (twins) o Hera (official wife, jealous spouse): Hebe (goddess of youthfulness), Ares (Mars, lover of Aphrodite), Eileithyia (the goddess of giving birth, comes to ppl giving birth to make it easier), Hephaistos (made him without Zeus) ATHENA  Roman name: Minerva  Pallas Athene (etymology unclear, maybe “maiden” or “weapon-brandishing”)  Born from the head of Zeus  Goddess of war, wisdom, weaving, craftsmanship  Virgin goddess  Symbols: owl, olive, helmet and armor  Epithet: glaukopis (grey-eyed/owl-eyed)  Patron deity of Athens  Protectress of heroes (Perseus, Herakles, Odysseus, Jason)  Birth of Athena o How does she get out of Zeus’ head? o Some versions say she just appeared out, full-armoured o Some versions say she had help from Hephaistos  Athena in the Iliad: The goddess standing behind Peleus’ son (Achilles) caught him by the fair hair, appearing to him only, for no man of the others saw he- Homer, Iliad 1.197-198 o She stands between Achilles and Hector o Only Achilles claims that he saw Athena, so she might be his conscience o Athena is on the side of the Greeks, that’s why she holds Achilles back o Patrocleus enters battle instead of Achilles, wearing Achilles’ armour o Later readings of writings suggest that Achilles and Patrocleus were lover  Achilles as the lover, Patrocleus as the beloved o Armour symbolizes your strength in battle o The fact that Patrocleus cannot take Achilles’ spear, symbolizes that he is not as great as Achilles o He enters battle, the Greeks are winning, Apollo tries to warn him to stop, but he doesn’t listen, and Patrocleus dies o The Greeks get him out of the battle, Achilles finds out, goes crazy and kills everyone in battle – the river is full of blood o Achilles knows that if he fights, he will die – he chooses to fight for glory o Hector and Achilles run around the town, chasing each other o Here ATHENA comes in as a helper for Hector, Hector gets courage, faces Achilles o However, since Athena is not on Hector’s side, Hector dies o After Achilles kills Hector, Achilles drives around with Hector tied behind his chariot o They have Patrocleus’ funeral ART  West pediment of the Aphaia temple (Aigina): Athena amongst warriors of the Trojan War o On Athena’s right side is the Trojan War Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 o On her left side is the depiction of another Trojan War which happened long time before, in the generation of Herakles, less-famous battle The Aiakidai  Zeus + Aigina > Aiakos + Endeis > Telamon + Periboia/Hesione (Greater Ajax, Teukros), Peleus + Thetis (Achilles)  This is a myth that was of local importance to the people back then Ancient Statues  They all used to be coloured, very pretty, natural colourings  Colors faded out – each color takes different time and turn into different shades  Only white marble underneath was left  Ultraviolet light shown on the statues show what colour it used to be  When archaeologists found the statues, they were already white, so the colours faded a long time ago  Modern technology allows us to know that they were once coloured  The whooole temple used to be coloured Athena & Athens  The Parthenon on the Acropolis  Constructed between 447-432 BC  Parthenon means house of the virgin  “Parthenongenesis”  Persians attack Greece, Greece wins, Athenian culture flourishes  Herakles comes and helps rebuild the place  Not well-preserved anymore because it’s been blown up by ammunition o A full reconstruction of the Parthenon is in Nashville, Tennessee  There was a statue of Athena in the Parthenon made of ivory and gold  “Frieze” – Once a year Athens celebrated their goddess, Athena, this was shown with paintings and sculptures on the frieze inside the Parthenon  “The peplos scene” in the frieze o Peplos is a woven garment, done anew, and given to Athena o Young girls were chosen to help wieve the Peplos o The Gigantomachy (the battle where Athena was very helpful) was woven into the peplos  Athena and Poseidon’s contest o They fought to be the patron of the city o Poseidon gave them water, Athena gave them the olive tree  Athena fights off Hephaistos o The Erechtheion – contained various important objects o Hephaistos lusts after Athena, tries to rape her o He’s so excited that he ejaculates on her thigh – Athena wipes it off and throws it on the ground – this sinks into the earth, produces a child: Erichthonius/Erechtheus – The child of the virgin goddess of Athena o Since Athena doesn’t want him, she puts him in a box, closes the box, gives it to her sisters (Herse, Pandrosos, Aglauros) and tells them not to open it o Ofcourse, being curious women, they open the box, sees a child that is half man half snake, turns mad/crazy, commits suicide.. APPOLLON Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  Roman name: Apollo  Son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis  God of poetry and healing  Oracular deity (esp. Delphi and Delos)  Epithets: Phoebus (“radiant”), Cynthius  Symbols: laurel, lyre, bow and arrow  Later identified with Helios (the Sun) – Helios was one of the Titans  Leader of the Muses (Musagetes) The Hymn to Apollo Part 1, Delian Apollo – about the birth of Apollo  Hera is jealous, forbids all land to reject Leto who needs to find land to give birth  She finally comes to a tiny island called Delo, has Apollo there  Hera keeps Eileithyia from coming, so Leto has a very painful birth Part 2, Pythian Apollo  Apollo travels the world, just like Leto – important parallel  He comes to Delphi  Here he meets a Python, kills it, says “go rot” = this is where the word “Pytho” comes from, pytho means “rot”  He sets up his Oracle, now he needs some preists  Apollo turns to a dolphin (Delphinos=dolphin) and appears to a ship of sailors, guides them to Delphi, they become Apollo’s priests  After Apollo defeats the snake, then he meets little Eros, makes fun of him for being so small so Eros shoots him for revenge and makes him fall in love with a girl who doesn’t want him = Daphne  She runs away, asks her father to help her, and he turns into a Loral Tree = this is why a Loral is Apollo’s symbol ARTEMIS  Roman name: Diana  Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo  Virgin goddess  Goddess of hunting – hunting is associated with virginity  Later identified with Selene (Moon)  Symbols: bow and arrow, stags  Story of Actaeon o He’s hunting around in the woods, suddenly came upon Artemis bathing o She is so angry that she turns him into a deer/stag o His hunting dogs don’t recognize him, so he is killed by his own dogs  Her birth: some versions say that Leto gave birth to them together in Delo, some say Leto had Artemis first then Apollo later  The cult statue of Artemis at Ephesos – belongs to the 7 Wonders of the World o Herostratos – crazy guy, he wanted to be famous – so he burned the temple Apollo and Artemis killing the children of Niobe  Niobe had 7 girls and 7 boys = 14 children Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  So she thought she was much better than Leto, who only had 2 children  Niobe makes fun of Leto  So Apollo and Artemis kills the children for revenge – Apollo shoots the boys, Niobe shoots the girls  Niobe is so shocked that she “turns into stone” – expressions like “turning into stone” is made literal back in the day, Niobe was so shocked that she couldn’t move, etc, but in myths, she literally turns into stone HERMES  Roman name: Mercurius  Son of Zeus and Maia  God of shepherds, travelers, thieves, merchants, orators; herald of the gods; leads the souls of the dead to Hades – “Psychagogos” – one who leads the sould to the underworld  Epithets: Argeiphontes (“Slayer of Argos”), Cyllenius  Symbols: winged sandals, winged cap, tortoise, staff – easy to recognize in art because of his wings Hymn to Hermes  Baby Hermes, one day old, up to mischief already  He comes across a tortoise, wants to play with it, brings it inside the house – Kills it, makes a lire out of it  Hermes – God of cunning and thievery: More mischief – Steals the cattle of his brother Apollo  He knows that if he leads them away from the stables, Apollo will know where they went – so Hermes makes the cows walk backwards away from the meadow  Apollo is mad, suspects Hermes, but Hermes acts like an innocent baby o “I’m only one day old, I don’t even know what a cow is lol”  Apollo is not fooled, so he picks up Hermes – Hermes FARTS at Apollo and then sneezes  Apollo brings Hermes to father Zeus and tattles, Hermes denies everything  Zeus is not angry, laughs, but makes Hermes retrieve and give back the cows  After this, Apollo is about to punish Hermes – then Hermes brings up the lire, plays something beautiful, then gives it to Apollo – creates nice friendship, Apollo isn’t mad anymore Hermes and the Underworld  Achilles has the corpse of Hector, doesn’t give it back to the Trojans  King Priam comes to ransom with Achilles o Hermes guides Priam to Achilles’ tent, since it can be dangerous  Achilles and Priam faces each other in the tent, talking about their losses  Moment of true humanity, so touching and moving – they have a connection, lets go of their anger – Achilles agrees to give back Hector, agrees to have a little break in the war, even asks Priam to dine with him  Just like he guided Priam, Hermes guides the souls into the underworld to Hades  Tartaros, Sisyphos  Katabasis – the journey of the hero down into the underworld  Odysseus (the hero of the Trojan war) wanders around for 10 years, he goes to the gate of the underworld, talks to the ppl who are already dead, meets Achilles who says “I’d rather be a working man alive, than a hero/king among the shadows” – Achilles regrets having lost his life for fame LECTURE 5 DEMETER Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  Roman name: Ceres (like, CEREal)  Daughter of Kronos and Rheia  Goddess of harvest and agriculture  Epithet: Thesmophoros (“law giver”) – she gives order to things  Symbols: sheaves of wheat, cornucopia  “Demeter” = contains the word “mother” in Greek PERSEPHONE  Roman name: Proserpina  Daughter of Zeus and Demeter  Spouse if Hades – he rapes her and kidnaps her to the Underworls  Queen of the Underworld o She spends half the year in Hades, the other on Mt Olympus  Epithet: Kore (Maiden)  D  Hades kidnaps Persephone, who is at a meadow  Demeter is desperate, finds 2 witnesses o Hecate didn’t see anything, just heard screams o Helios sees everything since he is the sun, sees all (also the one who saw Ares and Aphrodite having an affair)  She leaves Olympus, wanders the Earth as a mortal woman  Arrives at a well, meets a group of girls  Eventually the girls ask their mother if Demeter can be a nanny for their little brother  She enters the palace, fills up the entire entrance with her presence – sign of a divine god – but the mortals don’t notice  She’s still so sad, so one of the girls there, Iambe, tries to cheer Demeter up with dirty jokes, etc, and eventually makes Demeter laugh  Iambic poetry – making fun of people, etc, makes ppl feel connected, and laugh – very rhythmic poetry  Baubo (another version of Iambe in another story) lifts up her skirt infront of Demeter, shows her her genitals which makes her laugh o A Baubo figurine is a figure of a vagina with a face………wth  Then Iambe makes her a mixed drink, sort of like a beer  Demeter takes care of the little boy like her own o She tries to make him secretly immortal by putting him in the fire every night o Its like the story of Achilles, where Thetis tried to make him immortal, but failed to dip his ankle: “Achilles’ Heel”  Demeter leaves in anger, removes all the crops – BIG famine, all humans are gonna die  Eventually Zeus sees that there’s a problem, sends Iris to negotiate with Demeter  Demeter just wants her daughter back, so Hermes goes down to Hades and asks Persephone to come back with him  Hades, being sneaky and cunning, makes Persephone eat some Pomegranate seeds o If someone eats something in Hades (the underworld), they can’t go back to the real world  So she spends some time in the underworld and some with her mother in Mt. Olympus o It’s spring and summer when she’s with her mother, because Demeter is happy – that’s why crops gros o In the winter, Demeter is sad because she misses her daughter, and no crops come out Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  Eleusis – a place close to Athens, connected with the most important mystery  Once a year, the greatest mysteries were celebrated in the late summer, in a series of days, secret objects were transported etc o Different rites: There was a procession from Athens to Eleusis There was a bridge, and ppl heard obscenities shouted at them Fasting, like Demeter did when she lost her daughter Drinking Kykeon – mixture of drink  We don’t know what happened in the secret mystery stuff, but just remember that the story about Demeter and Persephone really influenced this important rite  Was closed in 392 AD by a Christian emperor ARES  Roman name: Mars  Son of Zeus and Hera  God of war, bloodlust  Lover of Aphrodite (from the Odyssey)  More prominent in Roman than in Greek myths – because Rome wasn’t too big around Homer’s time HEPHAISTOS  Roman name: Vulcan  Son of Hera (through parthenogenesis – no lover, by herself) in some versions, some say that he’s the son of Hera and Zeus  God of blacksmiths, God of fire  Crippled – he is lame  Thrown from Olympus o Version 1: Zeus has an argument with Hera, Hephaistos interferes, Zeus gets mad, throws him off Olympus, falls to Lemnos, injuring him o Version 2: Hera is having an argument with someone, asks Hephaistos for help, he says “no bc the last time I helped you, I was thrown off” – so Hera gets mad and throws him down herself, injuring him  Symbols: hammer, anvil, tongs  Husband of Aphrodite  Book 18 of the Iliad o Patrocleus has entered battle, killed by Hector, Hector strips Achilles’ armour off Patrocleus o Achilles is mad, wants to go kill Hector, but doesn’t have any armour o So his mother Thetis goes to Hephaistos and asks him to make a new divine armour for Achilles o Everything on the shield reflect human life – the scenes on the shield are moving, telling different tales LECTURE 7 HERCULES  Hercules murders his children and wife  Goes to Delphi to ask the Oracle  Eurestheus tells Hercules to do the 12 labours in atonement for the murders Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204 o Nemean Lion  Orders him to bring the skin of the lion  Tries to shoot the lion but doesn’t work  Strangles it and beats it with his club  Makes armour with the lion skin o Lernaean Hydra  The beast was raised by Hera to kill Heracles  Huge body, 9 heads – 8 heads was mortal, 1 was immortal  Cut off their heads, but for every head, 2 more grew in its place  Hera sends a Crab to help the hydra, but Hercules kills the Crab  He cuts the head, Ioleas singes it with fire o Ceryneian Hind (deer)  Sacred to Artemis  Golden horns, can outrun any arrow  Chases the deer for a year  Promises Artemis and Apollo that he will return the deer o Erymanthian Boar  Boar in the mountain, disturbed towns  Pholus (centaur)  Hercules opened a bottle of wine, centaurs came cos of the smell  Fights Heracles  Catches the boar by leading it into thick snow so it can’t move o Augean Stables  Augius – king  1000 cows, haven’t cleaned for years  Loooots of dung  Hercules diverts the river Alpheus and Peneus towards the stables – washes the stable o Stymphalian Birds  Athena gives him a rattle which stirs the birds to fly in the sky, and he shoots them o Cretan Bull  Bull that carried Europa to Europe OR Bull of Poseidon  Was terrorizing Crete  Captured by Hercules o Mares of Diomedes  Man-eating horses  Hercules kills Diomedes o Belt of Hippolyta  The belt of the Amazonian queen  Hippolyta fell in love with Hercules and gives him the belt  Hera, not liking that Hercules did the mission so easily, transforms herself into an Amazon woman and tells other amazons that Hercules is here to kill the Queen  They attack Hercules, and so Hercules thinks that Hippolyta tricked him, and kills her o Cattle of Geryon  Body of 3 men grown together  So annoyed at how hot the desert was, threatened to shoot Helios  The cattle is guarded by a two-headed dog Elizabeth Sohn – CLA204  He kills the dog with the poisoned arrow of Hydra o Apples of Hesperides  Golden apple  Guarded by Nymphs – daughters of Zeus and Themis  These apples were presented to Zeus and Hera at their marriage  Hercules catches Nereus (a shape shifting god) and asks where the app
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