Study Guides (238,072)
Canada (114,906)
Classics (214)
CLA204H1 (49)
A Keith (14)

Classical Mythology Test Review.pdf

88 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
A Keith

Hesiod,  Theogony  (117)   •  The incident at Mecone (Sicyon). •  Prometheus tricks Zeus into eating the bones that were covered in glistening fat. •  Etiological myth which explains why the bones of a sacrificed animal are burned on an altar. •  Also the reason why humans are able to eat the succulent meat from the sacrifice. •  The Theogony represents how an ideal citizen should act and a manual on how to run a household. Hesiod,  Works  and  Days  (131-­‐132)   •  Hesiod  reflects  on  the  five  races  which  led  to  the   decline  of  humankind  from  a  blessed  past  to  a   wretched  present.   •  The  five  races  were:   •  The  Golden  Age  (Who  lived  in  the  days  of  Cronos,   were  happy/blessed  and  at  death  became  spirits   on  earth).   •  The  Silver  Age  (A  child  would  live  for  a  long  ▯me   then  grow  up  and  die,  acted  with  violence,  did   not  respect  the  gods  and  at  death  became  spirits   who  live  underground).   •  The  Bronze  Age  (They  were  born  from  ash  trees,   sha▯s  of  spears,  weapons/houses  were  made  of   bronze  and  at  death  they  descended  into  the   realm  of  Hades  to  live  in  everlas▯ng  darkness).   •  The  Heroic  Age  (They  fought  at  the  Seven  Gated   Thebes,  trying  to  take  back  Helen,  heroes  never   died  at  all  and  were  transported  to  the  Isles  of   the  Blessed  ruled  by  Cronos).   •  The  Iron  Age  (The  race  of  women,  who  were  said   role  of  consuming  food).  labour  of  the  men  by  their   •  Works  and  Days  was  a  manual  on  how  to  run  a   farm  but  was  also  used  to  spread  poli▯cal   propaganda  on  the  transforma▯on  from  the   public  to  private  ownage  of  a  property.   Ovid,  Metamorphoses  (139-­‐140)   •  The  theme  of  the  universal  flood  in  which  Deucalion  and  Pyrrha  are   the  only  humans  le▯.   •  They  go  to  the  oracle  of  Delphi  and  ask  for  assistance  on  how  to   start  a  new  race  of  humans.   •  The  oracle  responds  that  they  must  veil  their  heads,  undo  the  knots   of  their  clothing  and  toss  the  bones  of  their  mighty  mother  over   their  shoulders.   •  Deucalion  believes  that  their  mother  represents  mother  Earth  and   therefore  they  must  throw  rocks  over  their  shoulders.   •  The  stones  thrown  from  Deucalion  became  men  and  the  stones   from  Pyrrha  became  women.   •  Etymology  of  how  the  human  race  came  to  be  and  why  we  are   tough  and  endure  hardship.   •  Metamophoses  is  compila▯on  of  myths  from  the  origin  of  humans   to  death  in  the  a▯erlife.     Homeric  Hymn  to  Apollo  (175)   •  The  Homeric  Hymn  to  Apollo  is  divided  into  two   parts:  The  Delian  Apollo  and  The  Delphian  Apollo.   •  Refers  to  the  etymology  of  why  Delphi  is  an   important  oracular  shine  for  Apollo.   •  It  talks  about  Apollo’s  defeat  of  the  serpent   Python  Telphusa  (parallel  with  mo▯f  of  dragon   combat).   •  Etymology  of  why  the  Pythian  Games  are  sacred   to  Apollo  in  Delphi.   Homeric  Hymn  to  Hermes  (196)   •  Hermes  as  a  trickster  figure  who  stole  the  ca▯le   of  Apollo.   •  As  soon  as  Hermes  is  born  he  invents  the  lyre,   slays  Argus  (the  hundred  eyed  monster  that   guarded  Io),  steals  the  ca▯le  of  Apollo  and  lies  to   his  father  Zeus  about  the  incident.   •  Homeric  Hymn  to  Hermes  the  story  of  his  birth   and  his  role  as  a  trickster-­‐god.   •  Hermes  is  symbolized  as  the  god  of  the   merchants  and  Apollo  is  symbolized  as  the  god  of   aristocracy.    Homeric  Hymn  to  Aphrodite  (222)   •  The  tale  where  Aphrodite  becomes  the  vic▯m  to  her   own  power  of  sexual  desire  by  an  a▯rac▯on  to  the   mortal  Prince  Anchises.   •  Aphrodite  is  compared  to  Hera,  Athena  and  Hes▯a   (Goddesses  who  remain  celibate).   •  Aphrodite  comes  to  Anchises  in  the  form  of  a    beau▯ful   nymph  sent  by  Hermes.   •  Anchises  will  be  injured  by  the  thunderbolt  of  Zeus  and   will  be  rendered  lame  if  he  tells  who  the  mother  of   Aeneas  truly  is.   •  It  was  considered  shameful  for  a  goddess  to  consort   with  a  mortal  man.   Ovid,  Metamorphoses  (227-­‐230)   •  This  myth  tells  of  how  the  Theban  Actaeon  fell  vic▯m  to  the  wrath  of   Artemis.     •  Actaeon  came  upon  a  naked  Artemis  bathing  naked  in  a  spring  while   hun▯ng  on  Mount  Cithaeron.   •  Surprised  nymphs  quickly  surrounded  the  naked  body  of  Artemis  in  order   to  cover  her  from  the  eyes  of  Actaeon.   •  In  turn,  Artemis  splashed  a  wave  of  water  on  Actaeon  turning  him  into  a   stag.   •  Although  shi▯,  Actaeon  had  to  hide  in  order  to  avoid  being  devoured  by   his  own  hounds.   •  Unfortunately,  as  he  tried  calling  out  to  his  hounds,  all  that  came  out  of   his  mouth  was  a  sound  of  a  stag.   •  In  the  end,  Actaeon  was  torn  into  shreds  by  his  won  hounds.   •  Etymology  of  primi▯ve  human  sacrifice,  the  gi▯  of  a  man  to  a  goddess  in   order  to  ensure  success  in  his  hunt.   Homeric  Hymn  to  Demeter  (248-­‐249)   •  Eyear.    of  why  the  seasons  change  every  third  of  the   •  Paccepted  a  pomegranate  seed  (symbolism  of  blood)  for     Hades.   •  Persephone  must  spend  one  third  of  the  year  in  the   Underworld  (Demeter  does  not  let  any  harvest  grow  hence   winter)  and  two  thirds  of  the  year  with  her  mother   (Demeter  lets  the  harvest  bloom  hence  summer  months).   •  Persephone  represents  the  fear  revolving  around  the   marriage  of  young  women.  She  represents  a  dying  goddess   in  which  the  marriage  to  Hades  symbolizes  the  death  of  the   parthenos.     Euripides,  Bacchae  (289-­‐290)   •  Dionysus  persuades  Pentheus  into  dressing  like  a  woman  in  order   to  spy  on  his  mother  and  his  aunts  (engorged  in  the  rituals  of  the   Bacchic  Cult).   •  Pentheur  agrees  and  follow  Dionysus  up  to  the  mountain  but  he   cannot  view  what  his  rela▯ves  are  up  to.     •  Upon  ge▯ng  a  closer  look,  the  voice  of  Dionysus  alerts  the  mother   and  aunts  of  Pentheus  that  there  is  an  intruder.  Agave  rips  off   Pentheus’  arm  and  his  aunts  rip  off  other  parts  of  his  body.   •  Agave  boasts  of  his  glory  by  showing  the  head  of  Pentheus  to   Cadmus.  She  is  then  put  back  into  her  senses  and  realizes  with   horror  what  she  has  done.   •  Dionysus  exiles  Cadmus  and  his  daughters  and  disappears.   •  Bacchae  is  an  honourary  selec▯on  of  myths  that  revolve  around  the   followers  of  Dionysus  and  the  spreading  of  his  cult  through  the   Ancient  Mediterranean  World.   Ovid,  Metamorphoses   •  The  hero  Perseus  defeats  the  sea  serpent  that   is  about  to  a▯ack  Andromeda.   •  Perseus  kills  the  monster  and  saves   Andromeda  and  from  permission  from  her   parents,  he  marries  her.   •  Perseus  ends  up  ge▯ng  the  kingdom  as  a   dowry.   •  Metamorphoses  is  a  compila▯on  of  myths.     Euripides,  Heracles  Insane   •  Heracles  was  given  Creon’s  daughter  Megara  in   Marriage.  He  fathered  three  children.   •  Heracles  went  mad  by  the  divine  forces  of  Hera.   •  Heracles  then  killed  his  wife  and  children  in  his   madness.   •  Heracles  imagines  that  he  is  travelling  to   Mycenae  to  kill  the  cowardly  Eurystheus.   •  Heracles  Insane  is  about  the  madness  sent  by   Hera  to  the  enduring  12  labours  that  Heracles   endured  under  Eurystheus  leading.   Sophocles,  Women  of  Trachis   •  Heracles  and  his  new  bride  Deianira  crossed  a   river  and  Nessus  tried  to  rape  his  bride.   •  Heracles  killed  Nessus  and  just  before  he  died,   Deianira  was  given  his  blood  with  Hydra’s  bile.   •  He  said  to  Deianira  that  this  po▯on  would  make   Heracles  fall  deeply  in  love  with  her  and  not  act   unfaithful.   •  As  a  gi▯,  Deianira  put  this  po▯on  on  his  clothes   and  Heracles  was  poisoned  by  the  substance.   •  Women  of  Trachis  tells  of  the  death  of  Heracles   and  his  rise  to  immortality.   Euripides,  Hippolytus   •  This  story  is  about  how  Aphrodite  made  Hippolytus’s   mother  in  law  Phaedra  fall  in  love  with  him.   •  Hippolytus  is  a  follower  of  the  divine  Artemis  but   Aphrodite’s  jealousy  takes  over  to  punish  the  dear  boy   for  his  devo▯on.   •  Phaedra  sleeps  with  Hippolytus  and  claims  that  he   raped  her,  then  she  kills  herself.   •  Theseus  comes  back  from  his  travels  and  kills   Hippolytus  by  his  crime  which  he  did  not  commit.   •  Hippolytus  is  about  Aphrodite’s  revenge  in  Hippolytus   being  punished  for  his  hate  of  women  and  his   chasteness.   Catullus   •  This  is  the  story  of  Theseus  and  The  Minotaur.   •  Every  year  King  Minos  sacrificed  six  young  men   and  six  virgins  for  the  Minotaur.   •  Theseus  of  Athens  volunteered  to  defeat  the   Minotaur  and  Ariadne  fell  in  love  with  him.   •  Before  Theseus  went  on  his  journey,  Ariadne   gave  him  a  golden  ball  of  thread  in  which  he   could  get  out  of  the  labyrinth.   •  Theseus  took  Ariadne  as  his  and  they  fled  to   Naxos.   Ovid,  Metamorphoses   •  Cadmus  was  told  to  search  for  his  sister  Europa.   •  Cadmus  defeated  the  huge  serpent  dragon  who   had  killed  all  of  his  comrades.   •  Athena  told  him  to  knock  out  the  teeth  of  the   dragon  and  sow  them  into  the  ground  where  a   new  race  of  soldiers  would  arise.   •  Cadmus  did  as  he  was  told  and  out  of  fear  he   threw  his  spear  in  the  middle  of  the  soldiers  and   they  killed  each  other.   •  This  is  the  story  of  the  miraculous  birth  of  the   soldiers  and  deals  with  dragon  combat.   Aeschylus,  Seven  Against  Thebes   •  The  Ba▯le  Before  Thebes   •  An  army  arrived  before  the  seven  gated   Thebes.   •  It  was  a  ba▯le  between  the  Argives  and  the   Thebans.   •  Eteocles  ba▯les  against  Polynices,  his  brother.   •  Creon’s  son  must  be  sacrificed  to  Ares.     Sophocles,  An▯gone   •  An▯gone  tries  to  bury  her  brother  Polynices,  who   Creon  has  ruled  as  a  traitor.   •  In  an  a▯empt  to  perform  the  ritual  sacrifices,  An▯gone   is  caught  by  Creon.   •  Creon  punishes  her  by  locking  her  in  a  cave  where  she   kills  herself.   •  This  is  a  ba▯le  between  family  and  poli▯cal  rule.   •  Creon  decrees  that  anyone  who  buries  Polynices  body   will  be  killed.   •  Haemon,  out  of  grief  upon  seeing  his  dead  bride  uses   his  sword  to  kill  himself.   Apollonius  of  Rhodes,  Argonau▯ca   •  Aeetes  pronounced  to  Jason  that  he  would  gladly   let  Jason  take  the  fleece  once  he  had  yoked  two   fire  breathing,  bronze  hoofed  bulls,  plowed  up   the  ground  and  sowed  the  dragon’s  teeth.   •  Jason  would  also  have  to  defeat  the  soldiers  that   sprang  from  the  earth.   •  Medea  put  the  dragon  to  sleep  and  Jason  sailed   away  with  the  Golden  Fleece.   •  The  Argonau▯ca  is  the  journey  of  Jason  and   Medea.   Euripides,  Medea   •  Medea  gives  a  robe  that  is  woven  with  poison   to  kill  Glauce,  Jason’s  mistress.   •  Not  only  does  this  gi▯  kill  Glauce  it  also  kills   her  father  Creon.   •  Medea  then  kills  her  two  sons  out  of  jealousy   and  flees  by  the  chariot  of  Helios.   •  Medea  tells  of  her  love  for  Jason  and  her   jealousy  which  led  to  the  murder  of  Jason’s   mistress.   Homer,  Iliad   •  Helen  on  the  Wall  of  Troy.   •  Helen  has  escaped  with  Paris  as  he  has   violated  the  xenia  (guest-­‐house  rela▯onship).   •  Helen  sits  with  the  Trojans  on  the  wall  and   iden▯fy  the  Greek  soldiers.   •  The  Iliad  is  the  subject  of  the  wrath  of  Achilles.   Homer,  Iliad   •  This  is  Priam’s  supplica▯on  of  Achilles.   •  Priam  comes  to  Achilles’  tent  and  asks  for  the   mangled  body  of  his  son  so  he  can  perform   the  proper  rituals  to  bury  him.   •  Achilles  is  overcome  by  his  own  grief  of  his   friend  Patroclus  and  offers  to  give  back  the   bady  of  Hector  to  Priam.   •  The  Iliad  is  the  story  of  the  wrath  of  Achilles.     Aeschylus,  Cheophori   •  Orestes  plots  with  his  sister,  the  murder  of  their   mother  Clytemnestra  in  order  to  revenge  the   death  of  their  father  Agamemnon.   •  Clytemnestra  has  a  dream  sent  by  Agamemnon   where  viperous  snakes  suckle  her  breast  and   then  bite.   •  Orestes  comes  to  her  mother’s  lover  and  kills  him   and  his  mother.   •  The  Furies  come  to  Orestes  and  put  him  into   madness  for  shedding  the  blood  of  kin.   •  Cheophori  is  the  revenge  of  Orestes.     Homer,  Odyssey   •  Odysseus  and  his  crew  come  across  the  Island  of   the  Cyclopes.   •  They  go  into  the  came  of  Polyphemus  and  eat  his   cheese.   •  Polyphemus  locks  them  in  the  cave  with  a  huge   boulder  and  is  drunken  by  the  wine  of  Odysseus.   •  While  Polyphemus  sleeps,  Odysseus  pokes  his   eye  and  in  a  rage  he  opens  the  boulder  and   Odysseus  and  his  men  are  free.   •  Odyssey  is  the  story  about  Odysseus  who  could   not  return  to  his  home  of  Ithaca  for  twenty  year
More Less

Related notes for CLA204H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.