CHP 09-11.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jarrett Welsh

LEC #5 THE GREEK HERO THEMES Characteristics of heroes and legends  Test against the developed frame work  Story of Perseus  Legends vs. myth  Bellaphone – grrek hero Myth vs. legends/saga  Myth- traditional story of collective important concerned w gods and how mortals interact with the gods activity of gods, no relation to actual history, stands outside  Narrative content differences with legends, saga Stories perceptible to history however true or false, related to human history and geog.  Basic elements of legends  Main characteristics of a myth: concerned mostly with gods eg) Artemis & Acteon tells more about Artemis than Acteon  Legends: main characters, mostly humans Chiefly stories, but about heroes Heroes vs. ordinary mortals Characteristics of Greek heroes Frodo as a hero, Middle Earth (fantastical setting) 1. Trusted helper, assistants: Sam and fellowship of the ring 2. Frodo under power of enemy (important element of a hero), a hero needs of an obstacle to surpass his ability 3. Super human tasks: sent to ends of the world 4. Magical objects: ring, torch, swords 5. At the end of quest, returns home for solitude (retirement) Three major geographical regions that are imp. to saga 1. Cities of Peloponnese Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Sparta, rural areas of Arcadia Mycenae, the most important/rich city of Bronze Age (1600-1100 BC) 2. Cities of Greek main land and surroundings Athens (Attica), Thebes, Orchomenus (Boetia), Iokus (Thessaly) 3. Troy in Asia minor, b/c of its relationship with Mycenae Etc. Crete, Minoan's culture was more powerful than of Mycenae before its fall Significant features of a classical Greek hero Frodo as a non-classical hero 1. Frodo is humble, doubts about himself. Classical hero willingly throws himself into a danger. No self-doubts 2. Isn’t seeking glory himself, classical heroes quest to gain it 3. Hobbit, small creature lacks clear strength and superior sides. Avoids violence. Greek heroes are physical imposing than ordinary people 4. Frodo “fails” at the request, unable to destroy the ring. Classical Greek heroes 1. Greek hero may have divine parent, or above level of ordinary mortals 2. Born under miraculous birth, either when they were born/just after born Eg) Hermes, Apollo’s achievements right after the birth 3. Childhood spent away from the city/parents -> exile 4. Great physical features, capacity to achieve things 5. Falls under enemy/opponent, to perform important tasks, do what is commanded – quest 6. Must resist dangerous women 7. Help, aided by spirits, god, magical objects etc Things are unified the fact that they are not human 8. Success never in doubt, always win 9. Returns home, and atones for crimes he may have committed 10. Rewarded at the end of their life, eg. Magnificent funeral Bellerophone as a classical hero  Hero of Corinth  Grandson of a king - miraculous birth  Left home because c he accidentally killed his bro -exile  Purified, Stheneboea falls in love with her, rejected, and accuses him - evil woman  Sent to Lycian under Iobates- enemy  Given magical winged horse from Poseidon , Pegasus, to help his quest Athena gave magic bridle and sandals for him to use the winged horse - fantastical aids  Iobates gives impposible tasks - oppoponents Chimaera – goat lion thing Solymi – fiercest of men Amazon women Fought all Lycian soldiers of Iobates  Iobate gave him a kingdom and his daughter (retired) Bellerophone's characteristics Human hero, not descended from god   Wasn’t sent to exile in his childhood -> more flexibility on the story telling  Sent to another land, then sent to Iobates for a greater enemy  Settles down in a new home LEC#5 THE THEBAN SAGA  Thebes: leading city of Boetia, central Greece  Mountain: Parnes, Cithaeron, Helicon, and Parnassus Straits of Euboes, on the East  Thebes located on a low l  Citadle: Cadmeia, after its founder Cadmus  Cadmus, son of Agenor (king of Tyre) Europa's brother  Europa kidnapped to Greek from Asia, Cadmus was sent to bring her back  Zeus disguised as a bull and rode her till Crete  Europa, mother of Minos by Z Cadmus  Went to Delphi to find Europa  Apollo told him to follow a cow until it rests -> Thebes / Cadmeia Found  To sacrifice the bull to Athena, Cadmus needed water -> spring belonged to Ares and his serpent - > killed all Cadmus' men -> killed by Cadmus  Athena told him to take its teeth and plant them --> armed men came out and fought themselves - -> 5 left, named "Spartoi" (Sow Men) --> descended Theban Royal fam  Cadmus served Ares for a year of god (8 years of human) b/c of the snake Free --> Ares gave his daughter between Aphro, Harmonia to marry Had four daughters: Ino, Semele, Autonoe, and Agave  Cadmus and Harmonia civilized people, brought them writing. Turned into snakes at the end. Mortal --> divine  Pentheus, the next king. Son of Agave --> Labdacus -->Laius (Labdacus' infant son) His uncle, Lycus ruled instead for twenty years Amphion and Zethus  Lycus is a son of Chthonius (one of five Spartoi) Married to Dirce  Lycus' brother Nycteus had a daughter Antiope, was pregnant with Z Fled to Sicyon (city in northern Peloponnese) Lycus attacked Sicyon and got Antiope back Antiope gave birth to Amphion and Zethus , who became a musician and herdmen They grew up and met Antiope, escaped from prison Avenged their mother by killing Lycus and Dirce (killed by being dragged on horns of a bull) From her blood, a fountain was formed  Amphion and Zethus sent baby Laius on an exile and ruled Cadmia  Married Niobe, Married Thebe --> city wall now named Thebes  Pattern similar to Cadmus story: city wall found civilized people Cadmus: writing, Amphion: Music) Laius  After deaths of Amphion and Zethus, Laius returned from the exile and ruled  King of Elis, Pelops, received him during his exile  Laius abducted Chrysippus, son of Pelops --> Curse upon Laius' descendents Chrysippus committed suicide after his rape  Laius marries Jocasta, asks Delphic oracle about his children --> was told his son will king him He ordered his son Oedipus to be exposed upon Mt.Cithaethaeron  The servant gave him to Corithian shepher --> took to Polybus, king of Corinth and queen Merope Named Oedipus, b/c of his swollen feet from the spike on his ankle  Oedipus visited Delphic prcle to question about his parents, told to avoid his homeland b/c he'll kill his father and marry his mother Went to Thebes instead of going back to Corinth, killed Laius on the way Oedipus  Thebes was plagued by Sphinx which Hera sent  Creon, Jocasta's brother, promised anyone destroying the sphinx will be the king and Jocasta's husband --> Oedipus destroys it  Homer's ver dies in battle but Sophocles ver. Is widely known sons: Polyices, Eteocles Daughters: Antigone, Ismene When he found things out, he blinded his own eyes and exiled himself  Oedipus story shows relationship between human and divine, and the way humans react on the events brought by divine Laws of zeus must be followed, not resisted  Oedipus is accompanied by Antigone and Ismene, and goes to Colonus (Sophocles' birth place, Attica )  Received by Theseus, king of Athens, and vanishes from the earth Seven against Thebes  Polynices and Etocles prepares an expedition against Thebes, to gain power Oedipus curses them that they will fight over the kingdom His sons fight over it and decides to rule rotating turns  After first year, Etocles refuses to pass the kingship --> Polynices raises an army with King of Argos  seven leaders who attacked Thebes: Polynices, Adrastus, Tydeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus, Amphiaraüs.  Amphiaraüs was a seer , knew that it'd fail, didn’t want to go. Polynices bribed Eriphyle with Harmonia's necklace He ordered his sons to avenge his death  each of the Seven stormed attacked each of own city’s gates. Capaneus was killed by Z’s thunderbolt b/c he boasted that even Z cann't stop him Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus, and Tydeus fell in battle Amphiaraüs and was wholly swallowed up with his chariot by the earth next to Ismenus river. Hero-cults in his honor were established in Thebes and elsewhere. Polynices and Eteocles killed each other in single combat. Only Adrastus returned home.  Mothers of killed heroes goes to Theseus and begs for their sons' burials. Theseus goes in and bring the bodies back Antigone  Antigone's uncle Creon ruled the city  Ordered Polynices not to be buried b/c he attacked his own city  Antigone couldn't commit the offence against gods and threw dirt on her brother  Was to be buried alive  Her fiance, Haemon (son of Creon) attempted to save her and found that she hanged herself ---> commits suicide --> his mother Eurydice, kills herself too Epigoni (The later generation)  Amphiaraüs' son Alcmaeon, follows father's order and kills his mother Eriphyle  Sons of seven heros attacks Thebes (Epigoni) The battle took place a bit before Trojan war  The Furies haunts Alcmaeon, he finds a settlement in Arcadia Marries the daughter of King Phegeus --> Harmonia's necklace given The land fills with pollution --> Alcmaeon leaves listening to an oracle Goes to western Greece and settles there  married Callirhoë, daughter of the river-god Acheloüs gave the necklace of Harmonia, having recovered it in Arcadia. Killed by sons of Phegeus for stealing necklace from Arcadia His sons became the founders of Acarnania. TIRESIAS  blind prophet, son of the nymph Chariclo, descended from Spartoi. had been both man and woman Hera and Z fights about which sex feel more pleasure during sex Takes Z's side and gains prophecy, but H blinds him consulted by Odysseus at the entrance to the Underworld and revealed his future. accepted the worship of Dionysus at Thebes warned Pentheus in vain of his mistake revealed the truth to Oedipus in Sophocles’ Oedipus the King and Sophocles’ Antigone he warned Creon of his errors. died during the Theban exodus after the attack of the Epigoni. LEC#6 The Mycenaean Saga  Mostly concerned with House of Atreus - Agamemnon, one of its prince, the leader of Achaeans against Troy TANTALUS AND PELOPS  The Banquet of Tantalus - Asian prince and a son of Zeus Cut up Pelops, his son, cooked and served to the gods excluded from the companionship of the gods and suffer thirst and hunger in Underworld gods refused to eat, except Demeter b/c she's distracted by grief for the loss of her daughter ate Pelops’ shoulder --> gods restored him to life with an ivory shoulder  Pindar explained Pelops’ disappearance b/c Poseidon loved Pelops, took him to Olympus --> other gods sent him back.  Pelops and Z worshipped during Olympic festival, southern part of Greek land "Peloponnese"  Pelops left Asia and came to Greece to marry Hippodamia, daughter of Oenomaus, king of Pisa. Had to defeat Oenomaus from Pisa to the Isthmus of Corinth, many failed and were killed. Pelops prayed to Poseidon for success and won with his help. Popular ver: won by bribing Myrtilus (Hermes' son) , the king's charioteer, to brake King's chariot Myrtilus was to spend the first night with the bride. Pelops broke the promise, and threw him to the cliff, and Myrtilus cursed his descendants --> affected House of Atreus THE HOUSE OF ATREUS  Sons of Pelops: Atreus, Thyestes  Quarrel between Atreus and Thyestes over the kingship of Mycenae that had been offered to “a son of Pelops.”  Atreus, as the possessor of a golden-fleeced ram, claimed it his wife, Aerope cheated him for Thystes and gave him the ram. Thyestes replaced Atreus as king and drove him into exile.  Atreus returned from exile and drove out Thyestes. killed Thyestes’ sons and served them to him. b/c of this, sun hid and the heavens darkened. Thyestes cursed Atreus and left Mycenae. Generations of Atreus and Thystes  Thyestes had Aegisthus, by his daughter Pelopia He continued his vendetta at Atreus family  Agamemnon succeeded Atreus as the king of Myceane, married Clymnestra Sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia to Artemis to get favorable wind for sailing  Clytemnestra ruled Mycenae in the ten-year absence of Agamemnon, cheated with Aegisthus . they murdered Agamemnon when he returnedfromTroy. a Trojan princess and seer Cassandra, was brought with him and murdered with him. Orestes and Electra  Orestes, son of Agamemnon, was on exile and lived with king of Phocis. Apollo ordered him to avenge Agamemnon’s death.  Orestes returned to Mycenae in disguise and was recognized by his sister, Electra With her support, he kills Clytemnestra and Aegisthus.  The Furies Pursue Orestes. He came to Delphi, where Apollo promised to protect him and ordered him to go to Athens.  Orestes Acquited by the Areopagus. Orestes was tried for murder before the court of Areopagos: Athenian citizens as judges  Votes ties, and Athena appears and sides with Orestes --> developments of laws and justice LEC 7: The Trojan Saga and Iliad THE CHILDREN OF LEDA  Tyndareus king of Sparta. Leda, his wife- bore four children to Z, who appeared in form of a swan. Polydeuces and Helen immortal) born from one egg Castor and Clytemnestra ( mortal) from the other.  Castor and Polydeuces not part of the Trojan saga, known as the Dioscuri/Tyndaridae .  Castor died in a quarrel, Zeus allowed Polydeuces to share his immortality by being on Olympus or in Hades on alternate days. Castor was a horseman, Polydeuces a boxer. As gods they helped sailors, and they were honored at Sparta and at Rome.  Helen had many suitors.Chose Menelaus and bore Hermione The other suitors swore to help Menelaüs in time of need.  Paris Prince of Troy, between Priam and Hecuba, seduced Helen and took her to Troy. Paris too kher as a reward for choosing Aphrodite to be more beautiful than Hera and Athena. b/c of Eris' inscribed apple thrown at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis Paris was then a herdsman on Mt.lda, raised up by a bear  To recover her and keep the promise, the Achaeans (Mycenaean Greeks) raised an expedition led by Agamemnon. Troy  Apollo and Poseidon built the walls of Troy for King LAOMEDON cheated them of their reward --> Apollo sent plague -> Poseidon a sea monster. Obeying an oracle, exposed his daughter HESIONE to the monster --> saved by Heracles, whom Laomedon also cheated of his reward. Heracles attacked Troy --> killed Laomedon --> gave Hesione to Telamon.  Laomedon’s son, Podarces, became king of Troy Changed name to PRIAM, had fifty sons and twelve daughter  nineteen of the children by queen, HECUBA Paris and Hector were the most important.  Before the birth of Paris, Hecabe dreamed of giving a birth to a firebrand that consumed Troy. --> exposed Paris on Mt. Ida --> became a shepherd. loved by the nymph OENON, who had the gift of healing.  Paris returned to Troy and was recognized by Priam as his son.  was saved by Aphrodite while accidentally getting killed in a fight with Menelaüs  killed Achilles by shooting him in the heel with an arrow.  Paris was wounded, Oenone refused to heal him --> he died --> she killed herself  HECTOR leading Trojan warrior wife was ANDROMACHE , a son, ASTYANAX Lost and killed by Achilleus  Helenus and Deïphobus. Two other sons of Priam Helenus was a seer, captured by the Greeks and spared by them married Andromache after Hector’s death and went with her to Epirus. Deïphobus married Helen after the death of Paris and was killed in the sack of Troy. Cassandra and Polyxena. Two of Priam’s daughters . Cassandra could foresee because of Apollo, punished b/c rejected with the fate that her prophecies won't be believed. She warned the Trojans of the city’s fall and of the Trojan horse. went to Mycenae awas killed by Clytemnestra Polyxena was sacrificed at the tomb of Achilles after the fall of Troy.  Other Trojan leaders who were not sons of Priam: AENEAS and ANTENOR Aeneas, son of Aphrodite and Anchises was saved by Poseidon from death in combat with Achilles. He survived and led survivors to Italy Antenor, brother of Hecabe (Hecuba), advised the Trojans to give Helen back to the Greeks. He and his wife, Theano, were spared at the sack and eventually came to Italy.  Allies of the Trojans: Lycian princes, GLAUCUS. Glaucus exchanged his golden armor for the bronze armor of Diomedes killed by Ajax.  Sarpedon, son of Zeus Z couldn't save him from death at the hands of Patroclus. Z raining drops of blood and ordering Sleep and Death to transport his corpse back to Lycia.  Late in the war the Ethiopians, led by MEMNON came to assist the Trojan the Thracians, led by RHESUS the Amazons, led by PENTHESILEA THE ACHAEAN LEADERS  AGAMEMNON, leader of the expedition. His brother, MENELAÜS: warrior, could'vekilled Paris if Aphro didn't save him  Diomedes. Great warrior ,king of Argos. Diomed favored by Athena, who enabled him to wound even Ares and Aphrodite in battle.  Ajax the Great, or Greater. AJAX, son of TELAMON  married with Laomede's daughter saved by Heracles, Hesione prince of Salamis defended the corpse of Patroclus. He accompanied Odysseus and Phoenix on the embassy to Achilles and competed with Odysseus in the funeral games for Patroclus and in the claim to the armor of Achilles.  Ajax the Less violated Cassandra, who had taken refuge at the altar of Athena. He died during the return home, having offended both Athena and Poseidon.  Idomeneus, King of Crete. friend of Menelaüs  Nestor, King of Pylos.  Odysseus, King of Ithaca. he tried to avoid going to war by pretending to be mad --> uncovered by PALAMEDES  Achilles. Greatest of all the heroes on either side was ACHILLES son of Peleus and Thetis and leader of the Myrmidons. - Achilles had as friend and tutor PHOENIX closest friend was PATROCLUS --> died in a combat with Hector--> Iliad's turning point Neoptolemus, aka Pyrrhus - Achilles’ son, joined the Achaeans at Troy after the death of his father THE GATHERING AT AULIS AND THE ARRIVAL AT TROY  The Achaeans gathered at AULIS, winds kept them from sailing. prophet CALCHAS said that it's because of Artemis --> IPHIGENIA sacrificed --> set sail  Calchas interpreted two omens here: an eagle devouring a pregnant hare—an omen symbolic of Agamemnon’s violence a snake devouring a bird and her eight fledglings— Achaeans would defeat Troy in the tenth year.  Philoctetes bitten in the foot by a snake on the island of Chryse The wound festered, and was abandoned in Lemnos. wound was healed by the sons of Asclepius, Podalirius and Machaon. With the bow, Philoctetes shot and killed Paris.  The Greeks also landed in Mysia (an area of Asia Minor), ruled by king, TELEPHUS- son of Heracles. Advised by the Delphic oracle, Telephus went in disguise to the Greek camp at Troy Healed the wound with scrapings from the spear of Achilles  The first Greek to leap ashore at Troy: PROTESILAÜS, killed by Hector. Hermes brought back him from the Underworld to his wife, LAODAMI she killed herself later THE ILIAD The events of the first nine years of the war were narrated in epic poems that are no longer extant. The Iliad is concerned with part of the tenth year. Its theme is “The Wrath of Achilles” (the first words in the poem) events start with the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in the first book ends with the ransoming of Hector’s corpse by Priam and his burial in the twenty-fourth book.  The Quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon.  Agamemnon had to give back his prisoner, CHRYSEÏS, because of the anger of Apollo (whose priest was the father of Chryseïs)  he took BRISEÏS, the prisoner of Achilles instead -->insulting a Achilles in front of Achaeans. Achilles withdrew from the fighting, and Thetis, persuaded Z to honor him by allowing the Trojans to be victorious in his absence. gods are important in the Iliad.  Apollo (the first to appear) favors the Trojans helps Hector kill Patroclus and later refreshes his corpse after Achilles dragged it behind his chariot  Athena and Hera support the Greeks Athena assists Achilles in his final combat with Hector.  Aphrodite protects Paris Aphrodite saves him from death at the hands of Menelaüs.  Thetis comforts Achilles after humiliatie by Agamemnon again after the death of Patroclus, she obtains new armor for her son from Hephaestus. She brings the order from Z to Achilles to stop desecrating Hector’s corpse and to give it back to Priam. Hermes escorts Priam through the Achaean camp. The gods fight themselves, and even are wounded  Zeus is constantly opposed by Hera honors Achilles in response to the complaint of Thetis  Hector returns to Troy from the battlefield  meets with Hecabe (Hecuba), with Helen and Paris  with Andromache and their son, Astyanax.  In despair at the Trojan successes, Agamemnon sends Odysseus, Ajax (son of Telamon), and Phoenix to offer gifts and honor to Achilles in apology and asks for his return --> refuses.  Patroclus,a friend of Achilles, persuades Achilles to let him fight in his armor as the Trojans reach the Greek ships. victorious at first, killing Sarpedon, son of Zeus, but eventually is killed by Hector, with the help of Apollo --> Hector strips the corpse of the armor of Achilles and puts it on.  The death of Patroclus drives Achilles  Thetis brings him new armor made by Hephaestus Achilles kills countless Trojans and even fights the river-god Scamande  Achilles and Hector s are left to fight in single combat. Zeus weighs the fate of each in his golden scales, and Hector is doomed. Achilles kills him with a spear thrust in his throat.  Efor twelve days Achilles dragged Hector’s corpse behind his chariot round the tomb of Patroclus. He celebrated funeral games in honor of his dead friend and relented only when Zeus ordered him, through Thetis, to give up his wrath against Hector  Escorted by Hermes, Priam gets Hector's body back and returns to Troy Iliad ends with the lamentations of Andromache and Helen and the burial of Hector. THE FALL OF TROY Events after the end of the Iliad were narrated in epics (now lost) whose summaries survive in tragedies and in vase-paintings. Book 2 of Vergil’s Aeneid is the major source for the sack of Troy itself. Achilles killed the leaders of Trojan allies—the Amazons, led by Penthesilea Ethiopians, led by Memnon--son of Eos (Aurora, “dawn”).  Achilles himself was fatally wounded in the heel by Paris. corpse was recovered by Ajax (son of Telamon) Thetis and her nymphs attended the funeral . Achilles conversed with Odysseus when he visited the Underworld --> demanded the sacrifice of Polyxena, daughter of Priam, at the tomb. Achilles (so some say) had loved her and was killed when meeting with her.  Odysseus and the Greater Ajax, son of Telamon, each claimed the armor of Achilles Trojan prisoners said that Odysseus had done them more harm so he got it In shame, Ajax killed himself, and from his blood sprang a flower with AI on its petals \(his name in Greek is Aias).  T Odysseus captured Helenus,, who advised the Achaeans to summon Neoptolemus (Achilles' son) and Philoctetes (snake wounded person)  The Achaeans left a wooden horse, built by Epeus, outside the walls of Troy and sailed away to Tenedos. Inside the horse were the leading warriors. Deceived by the Greek SINON, Trojans pulled down part of the city wall to admit the horse At night Sinon let the Achaean warriors out while other Greeks sailed back and entered the city. Cassandra had warned against admitting the horse and was not believed. The priest of Apollo, LAOCOÖN, son of Antenor, hurled his spear at the horse.  The Trojans ignored his warning also, and watched as two serpents came from the sea and throttled Laocoön and his two sons. Nostoi Ajax the Lesser (Son of Oileus) and Agamemnon. Athena raised a storm in the Aegean in anger at Ajax, son of Oileus --> The storm wrecked Agamemnon’s fleet (with which Ajax was sailing), Ajax boasted of his escape from drowning, was killed by Poseidon  A second storm struck the fleet, wrecking many more ships on the coast of Euboea. Agamemnon finally reached Mycenae --> murdered by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus  Menelaüs. Menelaüs reached Egypt after losing five ships in another storm. The sea-god Proteus told him how to appease the gods and sail back safely to Greece. T he visit of Menelaüs to Egypt fits with the legend that Helen spent the years of the war in Egypt, while her phantom went to Troy.  Seven years after the fall of Troy, Menelaüs and Helen reached Sparta --> resumed life He was transported to Elysium (rather than Hades) when he died he was the son-in-law of Zeus.  Nestor, Diomedes, and Philoctetes. other Peloponnesian leaders, Nestor returned to Pylos safely. Diomedes, who had wounded Aphrodite at Troy, returned to Argos -->the goddess had caused his wife, Aegialia, to be unfaithful. -> left Argos and came to Italy, where he founded several cities. Philoctetes returned to Thessaly and also was driven out He too went to Italy and founded several cities. The stories of Diomedes, Idomeneus, and Philoctetes seem to be connected with the foundation of Greek colonies in Italy  Idomeneus returned to Crete to find that his wife, Meda, had been unfaithful with Leucus, who then murdered her and her daughter and made himself king over ten cities. Leucus drove out Idomeneus --> went to Italy. Another ver. he vowed to Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing that came to meet him if he returned home safel --> His son In punishment , the gods sent a plague on the Cretans, who drove Idomeneus out.  Neoptolemus.: Achilles' son went by land back to Phthia with Helenus and Andromache With them and his wife, Hermione, went to Epirus as king of the Molossi. was killed at Delphi and was honored as hero THE RETURN OF ODYSSEUS (THE ODYSSEY, BOOKS 1–12) The return of Odysseus (Ulysses) is narrated in the Odyssey, delayed for ten years by the anger of Poseidon.  When him and his companions left Troy, they sacked the Thracian city of Ismarus, sparing the priest of Apollo, Maron, who gave them twelve jars of wine.  Then the Greeks sailed to the land of the lotus-eaters whoever ate of the fruit of the lotus forgot everything else and only wished to stay Odysseus managed to leave with his men.  sailed to the island of the CYCLOPES POLYPHEMUS ate his men one by one Odysseus used wine given by Maron and injured the cyclope Escaped through dangling under sheep Polyphemus prayed his father for Odysseus' uneasy sea travel and that he'd find troubles at home  Odysseus sailed to the floating island of AEOLUS , who gave him a bag filled with winds and showed him how to release the wind favorable for his return. His men opened the bag while he was aslee --> blew back to Aeolus, who refused to help  Next they came to the land of the LAESTRYGONIANS,who sank all the ships except one and ate the crews.  odysseus sailed to Aeaea, home of CIRCE, daughter of Helius,the Sun. transformed Odysseus’ crew into pigs but Odysseus helped by Hermes, used the herb s an antidote to Circe’s charms He lived with Circe for one year and she bore him a son, TELEGONUS Circe eventually let him go, and he sailed to the Underworld, to consult Tiresias.  The Book of the Dead --> talked primarily with Tiresias, foretold the difficulties of his return and events of his life and death.  Odysseus spoke with Agamemnon, Achilles, Ajax (son of Telamon), and his mother, ANTICLEA  Sirens, winged monsters with women’s heads, by their song lured sailors onto the rocks. Odysseus past by stuffing his men’s ears with wax and having himself lashed to the mast.  avoided the PLANCTAE (“wandering rocks”), by sailing close to CHARYBDIS , who sucked in the water and spouted it up, SCYLLA (daughter of Phorcys), snatched six sailors and ate them. S had been changed into a monster through the jealousy of Poseidon’s wife, Amphitrite  Telemachus, helped by Athena, went to Pylos and Sparta to find out news of Odysseus from Nestor, Menelaüs, and Helen. On his return he avoided an ambush set by the suitors.  Th Odysseust sailed to Thrinacia, where Helius pastured his cattle. his men disobeyed d killed some of them for food. Zeus raised a storm that sank the ship, leaving Odysseus as the sole survivor. Odysseus drifted to Ogygia.  Calypso. Odysseus, lived seven years on the island of Ogygia with the nymph CALYPSO daughter of Atlas. refused her offer to make him immortal ordered by Zeus, through his messenger, Hermes, to release him. helped him build a raft, and he sailed away towards Ithaca.  The raft wrecked by Poseidon near the island of Scheria, home of the PHAEACIANS reached land, was helped by the princess NAUSICAÄ, daughter of King ALCINOÜS and Queen Arete. Had a banquet where he told his story The Phaeacians Bring Odysseus to Ithaca. they put him on shore asleep, with the gifts Poseidon turned their ship into stone as it entered the harbor at Scheria. THE HOMECOMING OF ODYSSEUS (THE ODYSSEY, BOOKS 13–24) When reached home, found his wife hard pressed by many suitors, who were ruining his  property and plotting to kill his son, TELEMACHUS Odysseus killed them all and was reunited with Penelope, resuming his rule over Ithaca.  Athena helped Odysseus when he woke up after being put ashore. recognized by the swineherd EUMAEUS and by Telemachus They decided to dress up,disguised as a beggar, and go into the palace was insulted by the suitors and challenged to a fight with irus  Penelope put off her choice by pretending to choose after burial shroud for Laërtes, father of Odysseus, is done She worked with it during the day and undid by night  Penelope spoke with Odysseus (still in disguise), who gave an exact description of himself. She told him of her plan to mary the man who could string the bow of Odysseus and shoot it through twelve ax heads.  Odysseus was bathed by his nurse, EURYCLEA recognized him from a scar caused by a boar’s tusk but he prevented her from revealing his identity to Penelope.  Next day, the suitors had failed even to string the bow except Odysseu
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