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CLA204.Exam (1).docx

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Michael Carter

CLA204: Exam Notes 1) Gilgamesh (336-346)  The Epic of Gilgamesh  written down in Babylonian on twelve tablets  becomes good friends with Enkidu after he is sent down by the gods to fight him  performs many labours with his companion  Gilgamesh and Enkidu go to the Land of the Cedars to kill the guardian of the forest, Humbaba  many elements of the heroes quest: divine, extraordinary strength, persecuted by enemies, help from Siduri, companion, performs labours, tries to conquer death (fails) 2) Andromeda (363-369)  Ovid, Metamorphoses  Andromeda’s mother boasted that she was more beautiful than Poseidon’s daughters, Poseidon sends a terrible sea monster against the city Cassiopeia and her husband Cepheus  oracle says that the only way to save the city from the monster is to sacrifice the daughter to the monster  Perseus decides that he wants to save her, strikes a deal that if he manages to defeat the sea monster he can marry their daughter  Perseus defeats the sea monster  Andromeda has already been betrothed to her uncle Phineus  Perseus turns Phineus to stone with Medusa’s head at their wedding 3) Release of Prometheus (355-357)  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound  Prometheus is bound to a mountain by Zeus  while Io is wandering through the Caucasus Mountains, she finds Prometheus and tells Prometheus the story of her seduction and persecution  Prometheus predicts to Io what wanderings still lie ahead  in Egypt she will regain her human form, she will then be pregnant with Epaphus future king of Egypt, and her descendant in the thirteenth generation will set Prometheus free  Heracles came to Prometheus, kills the eagle devouring his liver and sets Prometheus free 4) Iole (402, 407, 410)  Homer, Odyssey  daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia, who offered her as a prize in an archery contest  won by Heracles but he refused to give her up  Heracles later forced Hyllus to marry Iole 5) Hippolytus (392, 436-442, 448, 472, 536, 538, 700)  Euripedes, Hippolytus  Theseus and Heracles go off on a mission to obtain the girdle of the amazon Hippolytus  Theseus takes her back on his ship to Athens, Hippolyta becomes pregnant and bears Hippolytus  Hippolytus becomes a devotee of the virgin huntress Artemis and chooses not to worship Aphrodite, denying his own sexual nature and caring only for the hunt and the wilderness  killed by his father’s curse  Euripides changes basic assumptions of an old story as his is a morality play  to think you can live without sex is an illusion, Hippolytus lacked a balance of the forces of life and that is why he died 6) Golden Fleece  Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica  Golden Ram • Ino marries Athamas who has children Phrixus and Helle from a previous marriage, Ino doesn’t want Athamas’ children to inherit anything • Ino goes to local women and convinces them to parch the grain that is supposed to be sewn that year so it won’t grow • Athamas sends a messenger to the Delphic oracles, Ino bribes the messenger to say that the only way to save the crops is to sacrifice his eldest son Phrixus • as Athamas is about to kill Phrixus, a golden ram appears and Phrixus and Helle leave on the golden ram • Phrixus gives the ram to King Aeetes, he sacrifices it and saves the fleece  Jason • is sent to retrieve the golden fleece by Pelias • the golden fleece is protected by King Aeetes • sets impossible tasks that if Jason can complete he can have the fleece 1. yolk two fire-breathing bulls to a cart and plow a field 2. sew dragon teeth into the field and kill the men that spring up 3. kill the dragon guarding the fleece • Hera asks Aphrodite to make Aeetes’ daughter Medea fall in love with Jason, help him with the tasks • Aeetes still refuses to give up the fleece so Medea comes up with a way for them to escape 7) Patroclus (305, 337, 343, 545, 552, 567, 570-572, 577)  Homer, Iliad  good friend of Achilles  tries to convince Achilles to return to war  convinces Achilles to let him wear his armour into battle so the Trojans think that he is back  kills Sarpedon  Hector goes after Patroclus for revenge and kills him  death of Patroclus convinces Achilles to go back to war 8) nostos  Homer, Odyssey  journey home  Odysseys’ journey home is probably the most famous nostos story  Odysseus encounters many different setbacks on his journey home, meeting civilized vs. savage people, constantly trying to figure out how to reason with people, see if
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