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Chapter 1 Nature of MythMyth traditional story with collective importanceCharacter certain mental imprint choices plot distant pastshadowy time anonoPlato Mythos storymythauthoritative speech logos accountTraditionaltrado hand over transmitting generations thoughtexplain society to selvfDescribe patterns of behaviour Socrates Achilles be braveTake what wantIliad NIobe AchillesVariation HomerSohpoclesOedipus continues to rule in HomerDivine MythControl awesome forces scale personified abstraction Victory or character ZeusTake place beforeoutside present orderObjects of veneration in cult but not religion belief and course of action that followsAitioncause etiologicalbrought world into existence Etna Typhoeus conjectureLegendJustify pastpresentno way to compare traditionshistorical realityoSupernaturals subordinate to human characters OrestesoHeroesheroinesexceptional important families regarded themselves as descendenatsoTells us about circumconcerns of trasmittersReflects major events dimly figures in legend in Myc of Late Bronze AgeoMenelausdistinctive name appropriate upholder of the peopleoArchaeologyTroyEtiological functionoOrestes Athenian people polluted by sharing bowl No contagion from ghostsFolktaleAny traditional story not divine mythlegendoFable aionos enigmaoDo not pretend to be historicoMain characters often low statusoEntertain teach universal human experience justify customType recurring constellation of motifs Cinderella type questoPerseusdangerous journey evil king marry mother Athena slew GorgonoYoung woman chained to rock married killed wicked kingoBorn in Argos accidentally killed grandfather Acrisius founded Mycenae children ruledoLegendfolktaleoMotifs distinctive abused youngest sister of three magic carpetMythology study of myth or myths themselvesoRecording and compilingContradictory confusing incompletePrincipal source is literature but author introduces variationsArchaeological recordunwrittenwritten sourcesoAnaylsis of roles in cultureTellers and audience have identitystatusoStudy of how related to other culturesoAsessment of lasting human significanceProper names of classical myth mostly greek in origin transliterated into Latin alphabetoPronunciationpitch and quantity length of time takes to pronounce a syllableChapter 3 Development of Classical MythGreek GeographyMountains agricultureWheat barley rainy season in winter Olivecooking cleansing anointing few cattlehorses fish staple Minerals raregold in Thrace iron in Laconia BUT Limestone on Euboea clay at AthensCorinthGreek HistoryOccupied in Paleolitic evenoEarlyMiddleappearance of civilization writingoLate Bronzeascendancy of mainland greeksoDarksack of citiesdisruption of tradeoArchaicinvention of gre alphabetoClassicalPersian attackdefeat at marathonsalamisoHellenisticdeath of Alexander the GreatEarlyMiddle Bronze Age 30001600BCMinoans on Crete minoselaborate palaces bull double ax labyrs fertility goddess no wallsGreeks were IE homeland central Asia migrated arrival 2100BC with intro of domestic horseIE society three groups by birth kingspriests warriors food producers family life devoted to war2Greek language not tongue developed over centuries from protoIE language many Semitic words tooLate Bronze Age 16001150BCMyceneaen Ageenormous citadelCalled themselves ArchaeansPowerful kings with aristosmilit centralized fortified1450 Minoan civilization destroyed by Myc Occupied and rebuilt Cnossus destroyed againLinear B useddeciphered by Michael Ventris syllabatoryoSpread shows cultural uniformity of MyceneansoScript modification of Linear A Cretan writing language unrelatedoGreek legends originated during Myceneaen periodNonGreek cities sometimes center Crete Troy but seen through Greek eyesTrojans maybe Hittites1150 fire destroyed most Myc palacesDark Age 1150800BCDestruction to Dorians Greeks say Sons of Heracles Athens withstood alonePetty kings migration Euboean settlements only Greek towns to continue trade with NE alphabetArchaic Period 800480BC800BC from Phoenician writing Semite invented Greek alphabetEmigrationcolonies to west southern Italy SicilyEmergence of Greek polissocial group defined by geography concept of citizenship competitiveRebirth of commerce reliance on seareduced class distinction yay individualismth6 century introduction of coinagecapitalism new socialoAristoi vs kakoio650500BC tyrantsruler aristocracy gave pejorative meaningPersia absorbed Mesopotamia Egypt Anatolia and some Greek colonies on AM coastClassical PeriodYay Polis Aristotle said man only reaches potential by polis as is political animal however loyalty to familystate divide508 BC Democracy Clisthenes Rule by law Reason with evidence religpoli separation responsibility for individual destinyPersian Warso490BC invaded BGreeceoFirst Marathon Herodotusproves freedom is nobleo10 years later Thermopylae Salamis PlateaHerodotus makes a study history means inquirySense of being a peopleoCommon language writing Hellenes same festivals panhellenic ones panathenaicoGraioi from Romans who took it from a tribeoAfter SpartaAthens rival leaguesPeloponnesian war 431404BCAthens Herodotus Thucydides Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides Aristophanes Pericles Socrates Plato Aristotle Ictinus Phidias DemosthenesoAlso Pindar Hippocrates Democritus etcGods determine human events challenged by Hipporcartes Protagoras Plato Aristotle ThyucdidesHellenistic Period 32330BC338BC Philip II of Macedon overran monarchyAlexander saw as latterday Achilles attacked PersianGreek culture became world culture Greek model cultural capital AthensAlexandria146BC Rome conquered Greek mainland 30BC suicide of CelopatraMalesClassical Athens 25k of 200KSymposium literacy wars athletic competitive divided friendsenemes by giftspunishment poliso613 pedagogueread write memorize Homer etc live in womens quarter exercise nakedo18 became citizen half fathers dead military procdure hunting skills festival to Thesuesidentifybreak from femaleso20 pederasty art beardbeardless adult homos mocked by Aristophanes refine moral qualities andreion Platos Symposium define nture of eros hetairai female courtesans who sangdancedBronzeDark war between unorganized gangs with heroes Classical Period citizen fought for glory of polisoHoplites hoplon shield pay for quip spear oneedged sword in phalanx tight formationoFirst formation to break up lose truce trophy set upoCavalry not important till Hellenistic proboGymnasiumnonlethal forms of war sport practice for warFemalesLived in gynaikeion spinningcloth illiterate mostly female friends convomusic told fables to childrenMarriage
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