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CLA204 Midterm 1 Notes

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A Keith

CLA204 Lecture 1 NotesWhat is mythmthos ancient Greekstory plot of a narrativemytha traditional story of collective social importancecharacter plot temporal and special settingmthos storylogos accountstudy of myth mythologyset in distant past or time so long ago when humans did not existmythical placeie garden paradise world of the dead etcCirculation of Mythoral Orpheus Homer Hesiodliterary Ovid Euripidesartisticmedia sculptures paintdance versions ballet tragedy musicaloperastorytellers vs authorsOrpheus traditional mythicalthHomer Greek 8 c BCEHesiod 700 BCEthEuripides Athenian 5 c BCEchanges the emphasis of myths to speak to audienceOvid Roman 43 BCE17 CEuniverse story is very different from Hesiods stndApollodorus Greek 1 or 2 c CEndHyginus Roman 2 c CEcatasterismtransformation into a starbecome a constellation heroes etctheodicydivine justiceOvid March 43 BCEaristocratfather wanted him to become a politicianwanted to be a poetserved as judge retired at 20Metamorphosesautumn of 8 CEbanished to edge of Roman Empire due to witness ofinvolvement in scandal involving Augustusover 250 myths in Metamorphosesmost involving some form of transformationhuman transformation into godapotheosis god transformation to human disguisehuman transformation into animals plants features of the landseaskytransformation to stars constellationcatasterismstndApollodorus 1 2 c CEGreek scholarwrote the Library in attempt to systemize all Greek mythsummarizes uncritically all mythndHyginus 2 c CERoman authorhandbook of mythwritten in Latin but from Greek sourcestraditional storied by Greeksmany myths show divine justice theodicypunishments by godsHesiod and Ovid have very different views on the justice of the godswide range of approaches to the mythTypes of Mythdivine mythsabout the godsmyths properanthropomorphic vs personificationsanthropomorphicZeus Hades etcpersonificationsvictory Nike Eos discord etcoften etiologicalexplain cause originscientific mythsdivinewhy gods are worthy of worshipwide array of gods in divine mythoften occur outside of human time in a time humanity cannot grasp and in locations too far away or too hard to get to Underworld Mt Olymposheroic mythslegendsabout heroesAchilles Menelaus Hector Trojan War Daedalus Jason Theseusanalogous to history to the Greekshistorical mythslegendseem to have records of what happened in human pastcentral characters are human beings opposed to divineheroes heroinesoften of aristocracyby definition important to human time framesaid to be ancestors of Greek people long lineagesset in distant past of historyslay beasts fearsome creatures waged wars founded citiesearly human historymodern archaeology proveslegends may have distant base to truthMediterranean cities in Greek myth were very central citiesexcavations as proofTroy is sometimes believed to be true cityexcavations of wealthy city destroyed 1250 BCElegendary Trojan War has truth in itlinear B tabletassociated with Bronze Agebrought to light names of Trojan War Greek myth Achilles Hector Daedalus Theseus etcfolktalesordinary folkmostly concerned with ordinary people as central charactersfairy tales fables folktale typesmay be ordinary character to begin with often go through reversalin which they discover talent wealth fortune etcin order to triumphscholars of classical myth identify folktale motifstypes which are pervasive in mythmotifs abused younger sondaughter fairy godmother helper marriage to princeprincess cap of invisibility magic flight far away land dragon guarding fountaingardenmost famous in Greek mythquestquest male must go in search of treasure and overcome monster etc with help of a god or special token monster is at first seen to defeat her but hero prevails escapes with prize gold princess etcGreek heroesJason Perseus Herakles Latin HerculesItaly Greek Peninsulasconnect through water and landdry barrenmountains dominate landscapeAttica Athenshero TheseusBoeotia ThebesOedipusCorinthlocated on the isthmus connecting Peloponnese to mainlandMycenaeAgamemnonArgosHeraklesPerseusLaconia SpartaMenelaus brother of Agamemnon husband of HelenTrojan WarHistorical PeriodsOld Stone Age Paleolithic before 6000 BCEalmost no material survivedNew Stone Age Neolithic 60003000 BCEpottery stone toolsgrave burialsBronze Age 30001150 BCEEarly Bronze Age 30002100 BCEMiddle Bronze Age21001600 BCELate Bronze AgeMycenaean Period 16001150 BCEMinoan Culture 22001400 BCECretenamed after King MinosCnossos labrysdouble axelabyrinth comes from Greek worddouble axeworshipped fertility goddess perhapsMycenaean Period 16001100 BCEworshipped fertility goddess unknown for certain if true identity unknownMycenae Pylos Thebeslinear B tablets earliest known writingsMycenae taken over by Greek speakers in 1600 BCEMichael B Ventris deciphered linear B
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