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Final

All Terms and Proper Names for the Final

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA219H1
Professor
Regina Höschele
Semester
Fall

Description
Terms Actium (battle of) • The battle was a naval battle of the Final War of the Roman Republic fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of MarkAntony and Cleopatra VII • Took place in 31 BC on the Ionian Sea near the city ofActium, at the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece hieros gamos • Meaning ‘the holy marriage’ • Asexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted by human participants representing the deities • Does not presuppose actual performance in ritual • Simulate union to promote fertility hymn • These are “songs of praise” • Often performed before the recitation of epic • E.g. The Hymn to Demeter, which is attributed to homer (as are most, if not all, though doubt- ful “he” wrote it) iambic poetry • It is said that Iambe is the founder of Iambic meter poetry • She was an old servant who tried to cheer up Demeter at the house of King Celeos by showing her genitals and making lewd jokes • This type of poetry is always containing some form of attack (laying blame, being obscene or insulting) • Iambe is also called Baubo invective Invective poetry lays blame; it is a poem of attack and denigrates the subject • • Usually women are the subject • E.g. The Hymn to Demeter is an example misogyny • Hatred of women myth • Asacred narrative usually etiological (explanatory) either of the world, or how humankind came to be in its present form • In a very broad sense the word can refer to any traditional story • Usually involves supernatural characters • Can be overelaborated accounts of historical events, allegory, or personification of natural phe- nomena • Transmitted to convey religious or idealized experience, to establish behavioral models, and to teach • Amyth can be told several different ways, with different details. They have very basic skele- tons and the details vary ab ovo • Literally meaning “from the egg” • Refers to telling a story from the very start • Derivative of Helen’s birth from the egg • Instead of Homer beginning the story of the Iliad from her birth, her starts in the tenth year of the Trojan war, thus not ab ovo • Later Greek writers assert that even in the 2nd centuryAD the shells of an egg were still present in Spartan temple Argonautica The Argonautica byApollonius of Rhodes tells of the myth of Jason and theArgonauts to • retrieve the Golden Fleece from Colchis • Colchis is non-greek (Barbaros) and is therefore threatening • King Aeetes refuses Jason’s request, tells him to do x, y and z before he’ll give over the fleece (and the tasks are impossible) • Jason fulfills the tasks with the help of Medea, the daughter ofAeetes, who has fallen in love with him • Together the flee with the golden fleece and bring it back to Greece • During the voyage back she cuts up her brother and throws the pieces overboard • She has betrayed her own family by helping Jason, her only option was to go with him • The Argonautica consists of four books which tell of the journey of theArgonauts and how they fled fromAeetes barbarian • Greek ‘barbaros’ • So named because their foreign tongue sounded like ‘barbarbar’to the Greeks comedy • Greek comedy is raunchy and perverse, full of obscenities • Actors often wear big fake phalluses • Vase paintings depicting Comedic scenes are quite suggestive didactic • Agenre of teaching • E.g., Works and Days by Hesiod is a didactic epos • It primarily addresses Hesiod’s brother, Perses • Teaches Perses how to be good and work for his livelihood encomium • Meaning “praise” • Essentially the mortal version of praise (a song of praise of anthropoi) epic/epos • Epics/epos are long narratives which most often deal with wars palinode • Palin = again; ode = song • “the again song” • Essentially where you take back what was said before E.g., the Greek poet Stesichorus writes a song in which he blames Helen for the Trojan war. • For his slanderous poem he loses his eyesight (courtesy of her brothers) • He then recants a song saying she is not to be blamed • This is part of a tradition to take the blame away from Helen Potiphar’s wife motif • Exemplified in Hippolytus by Euripides • In revenge for Hippolytus failure to worship her,Aphrodite makes his stepmother fall in love with him. She sends her nurse to entreat him. He refuses her, and she turns the story around to her husband (he came at me) in a letter to her husband and then kills herself, leaving her hus- band to punish his son • The name of this motif is taken from the bible when the wife of Potiphar makes an attempt on Joseph, and at his rejection she turns the story around to her husband tragedy • Genre of theatre • Doesn’t necessarily have a bad ending, just a serious subject matter • E.g., Euripides Helena androgynous • According to plato there were originally 3 sexes: male, female, and androgynous • Androgynous was one part male and one part female • Had a negative connotation in Plato’s day • When Zeus split the androgynous the result was adulterous men and women apotropaic • “warding off evil” function attributed to the phallus discourse • Institutionalized way of thinking • E.g., sexuality relating to power where the male is active and the other is passive erastes • Means “penetrator” • The lover and older man in a pederastic relationship, active in politics, military and head of household • Doesn’t usually have a wife when in a pederastic relationship - they marry quite late (30s) eromenos • Means “penetrated” The beloved young boy lover in a pederastic relationship • herm • Man’s bust on top of pillar with huge phallus • Associate with hermes Often erected on boundaries (literary evidence in Hipparchus) and crossroads serving an • apotropaic function • Often depicts heads of philosophers, politicians • 414BC, Peloponnesian War, Sicilian expedition • On evening of expedition herms were mutilated • This was a bad omen and hermes is the protector of travelers • Called the Hermokopidae scandal - people were interrogated, banished and killed as a re- sult hermaphrodite • Son ofAphrodite and Hermes • Beautiful boy who encounters lustful nymph Salamis • He rejects her, she pursues him, clinging to him when he tried to bath in a spring, resulting in the merging of their bodies Androgynous beauty • hetaera • Woman who isn’t a slave and is unmarried, enters into a long term relationship with a man in- volving exchange of gifts • Not often that women who chose to be mistresses (hetaera) are educated, active, and inde- pendent • More in literature than in actuality because we can never really know? - this is one inter- pretation • Could not marry a hetaera in Athens - all about legitimacy • Union between two citizen yields a citizen lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis • We know of this from Marcus Cato • Julian law about what to do when adultery happens (Augustus Caesar) • Banishment to 2 different islands • Male perpetrator loses half of his property • Woman loses half her dowry, a third of her property, and will not be able to remarry pederasty • Refers to the love of boys • Grew out of the social environment of symposium where prepubescent boys served wine and learned about adult male behavior • Prepubescent passive boys received erect penis between the thighs in intercrural inter- course • This relationship could be politically advantageous for the younger boy • And the status and beauty of the young boy could honor the man • It was a sexual initiation and had an educational function • Can only desire a boy until he grows his first beard, which is a sign of adulthood • Homosexuality is a modern concept and pertains to two adult males, which was bad accord- ing to ancient Greeks because being a voluntary passive partner is unfulfilling the purpose of being an active (male) member of society • Kinaedos is passive homosexual • Private relationship - no PDAs • Social practice where erastes are social tutors who teach the eromenos about the world • NOT pedophilia phallus • Priapus, the god of fertility is always represented with a large phallus • He is a protective god • Symbol of potency, fruitfulness • The phallus (images, representations) is not shameful to them • Phallus is an erect penis, a penis-shaped object or a mimetic image of an erect penis • However, any object that symbolically resembles a penis may also be referred to as a phallus, but more often called phallic • Such symbols often represent the fertility and cultural implications that are associated with the male sexual organ, and the male orgasm • Ithyphallic = with erect phallus Porne • Woman who sells body out at a continuos basis to various men • Often slaves, found in brothels tintinnabulum (plural: -a) • Apotropaic phallic wind chimes agalmatophilia • Refers to sexual attraction to a statue, and may include sexual contact • E.g., Pygmalion and his statue Galatea, or the noble lover ofAphrodite of Knidus Archaic smile • Aserene, upturn of the lips on an archaic statue that resembles a little bit of a smile carpe diem • Aphrase from a latin poem by Horace • Commonly translated as “seize the day”, but literally means “pluck the day” elegy • Agenre initially used for laments, and songs for mourning epigram • Means “written on an object” • Written to be chiseled on stone for funerary inscriptions or accompanied votive offerings • Later gets dissociated with being chiseled and we find epigrams not meant to be inscribed epitaph • Aphrase written for someone who has died fellatio • Sucking a dick (I really hope she doesn’t ask this one, cause that’s what I’ll put down) • Yo mama is a hoe, she gives fellatio, that’s how you got your 4.0 I thought you’d like to know! kore • A statue of a(n ideal) young girl • Also an eponym for Persephone • Means “maiden” • clothed kouros • Astatue of a(n ideal) man • Naked memento mori • Latin phrase meaning “Remember you will die” • Can refer to a genre of art with which to remind people of their mortality mimiamb • Awork by Herodas that deals with every day life in the common dialect mimos (mime) • Agreek term meaning “imitator” or “actor” olisbos • Aclassical term for a dildo Paraklausithyron • Amotif where a lover comes to “lament beside a door” • In greek poetry it commonly occurs after a symposium, where a man seeks out his mistress • The door can be symbolic for a woman’s vagina peplos Atype of garment • • From the archaic period (as seen on the Peplos-Kore of 6th century BC) polychromy • Multi-colored scheme • Greek and Roman statues were polychromous, used natural pigments • Over time these colours fade and deteriorate differently • Though ultraviolet light technology we can see how statues used to look Second Sophistic • An intellectual movement • When Greece was not a political power anymore and under the dominion of the Romans the Greeks had the older and more sophisticated culture • Because they lacked political power they would look back on their tradition and feel stronger by its greatness • ClassicalAthens was the height of culture - sort of how we look back on Shakespeare • The ‘first’sophistic concerned the contemporaries of socrates in 5th century (the sophists) who wanted to be paid for teaching vetula • Means “old woman” in latin • Poems covering this subject are often derogatory and feature a drunk old woman epithalamium • Fragment of Sappho entitled “When I look at you” deals with the physical going-ons in her body • Agerman philologist though this text was a wedding song Leucadian cliff • Belief that if you jump off of it, surviving guarantees forgetting the person who spurn you, and if you die, it still works out palimpsest • Amanuscript page from which the text can be scraped off an used again • Usually in the form a wax-coated tablet tribade • The ancient Greek word for female homosexuals • Tribune = to rub • Tribbing = scissoring cletic hymn • When you call on a god for help archon • Chief magistrate in ancientAthens aste • Women could not be a poliltes (a member of the polis, male citizen) • Women would be aste because her citizenship didn’t involve any political rights coemptio • Afictitious notional sale of the woman to the husband • Occurred at any point in the marriage • This transaction occurred with the guardian in the presence of at least five witnesses, all of whom were adult male Roman citizens • This was a rare practice confarreatio • Traditional patrician form of marriage • Ceremony involved the bride and bridegroom sharing a cake of spelt • The Flamen Dialis and Pontifex Maximus presided over the wedding, and witnesses had to be present • Therefore quite rare • The woman is passed directly form the hand of her father or head of household to that of her new husband ekdosis • The giving out of the woman • The transfer of the woman to the dwelling of the bridegroom engye • Oral contract of betrothal between father and future husband • Father says “I pledge so and so for the purpose of producing legitimate children” • The man says “I accept the pledge” Woman is passive object of transaction • epikleros • Translated as heiress not not really what it means • Means “with the property” In a case where you have no sons your daughter would have all the father’s property, but she • would need to be married • The property was attached to the girl, but she didn’t really possess it • Her male descendants would still be from line of father so the husband of the epikleros would make sure that the male descendants got the property This is why Solon passed the law that the husband of an epikleros must sleep with her at least 3 • times a month kyrios • The guardian of a woman manus (with/without) • Ancient Roman marriage, of which there were two types: • Cum manu: the wife was placed under the legal control of the husband Sine manu: the wife was still under legal control of her father • • Originally cum manu was the only form of marriage but then sine manu became more popular metic • Immigrants inAthens Could not own land or houses (immovable property) • moicheia • Adultery oikos • The house/the household • The whole estate pallake • Live in mistress whose children are illegitimate unless she is athenian citizen pater familias • The head of a roman family • Latin term for “father of the family” or the “owner of the family estate” • He held privilege over the property and varying levels of authority over his dependents (wife and children and adopted relations, clients, freedmen and slaves) tutor • An office of rank given to one of the most trustworthy slaves univira • Awoman who was only married once • Not a cultural expectation or in the interest of the state choleric • The condition of humors in which you are dry and hot • Hot-tempered corpus • Means body, and often refers to a body of works (literature) Hippocratic oath • Sworn by modern doctors to adhere to certain principles • Widely believed to have been either written by hippocrates, the father of western medicine, or one of his students Humors (4 humor theory) • Humor related to body and the fluids therein related to mood • There were 4 combinations: Dry and hot = yellow bile • • Dry and cold = black bile • Wet and hot = blood • Wet and cold = phlegm • These elements theorized to be in every person • Depending on what prevails that is what constitutes our mood of behavior hysteria • Malfunction of the uterus and the wandering womb lead to hysteria in women • Something that is propagated right into the 19th century • Best way to prevent this was to marry them off and give them to a man who will have sex with them • Virgins are exceptionally hysterical • She gets visions or feelings that compel her to seek death • Virgins should cohabit as soon as possible with a man • If they get pregnant they are cured • Sterile married women li • kely to suffer from hysteria Part of domesticating the female • melancholic • Having dry and cold humors leading to a melancholy disposition phlegmatic • Having wet and cold humors leading to a lethargic disposition sanguine • Wetness and hotness relating to an optimistic disposition wandering womb • The womb is a living animal, first seen in Plato • It needs moisture and if it dries it moves to other parts of the body • If she doesn’t have enough sex it gets dry and become angry and miserable without sex • It moves to other parts that are wetter and presses against organs whereby making her insane • If you get pregnant you’ll be cured • This disease most common among virgins and non-sexually active women • To cure they would take smells that are really nasty, have women smell it, and when the womb smells these things it returns to its proper place and put very fragrant scents near the vagina Magical tradition puts curses on wandering womb and tries to make it behave • • Can also use amulets with magical formulas • Exorcisms were performed too • Womb as a gorgons head, or an upside down jar • It’s all about domesticating women Adonia Festival for Adonis, the mortal lover ofAphrodite who died young in a hunting accident • • Doesn’t seem to have been officially organized by the city, but was an informal gathering of neighbors and friends all of whom were women • They would hang out on rooftops and lament for him • And also grow gardens, letting it sprout and then deliberately let them die which reflectedAdo- nis’short life • This was one of the few times women could express their sexuality anodos • The first day of the Thesmophoria • Meaning “ascent” • Women would come to this hill (pynx) where the assembly took place and camp out in huts or tents during the festival • They would bring food and sacrificial animals and offerings Arkteia • Acelebration at Brauron in Attica at the sanctuary ofArtemis Brauronia • Comes from the word Arktoi (bear) • Young girls would don bear masks and dance Only the daughter of an athenian citizen could • • The girls would wear saffron colored robes • Happened every 4 years • There would be a procession from theAcropolis inAthens to Brauron which is 20k! • At Brauron would be dancing and races • Comes from the story of a girl playing with a bear sacred to artemis, who was then scratched by the beast. The bear was then killed, makingArtemis unhappy. She causes a plague and said it would only be removed when little girls pretended to be bears Anthesteria Aspring festival of wine and drinking associated with Dionysus • • Slaves could take place in this festival • Celebrated on three days called: • Pithoigia (the opening of the jars) in which you would go to temple of Dionysus of the marshes and open jars and to taste the new wine • Choes which was considered a day of pollution in which you made libations.At home you paint doors with pitch, eat together in silence, drink a lot (every person including slaves would drink 2.5l! (but they cut their wine). Children as young as 3 had their own (smaller) pitcher as initiation into the family. Perhaps had to do with sacrifice, where wine acted as blood, perhaps coming from the tradition of the god Dionysus being ripped apart by titans. When they were drunk they would put wreaths on pitchers and make procession to his tem- ple. There would also be a sacred marriage, and act carried out by the Basilinna, wife ofAr- chon Basileus • Chytrio which means pots in which they would cook up grains and make an offering to Hermes of the Dead. On this day girls would swing on swings joyfully. This comes from the myth go Erigone, daughter of Icarius, who was the first person to whom Dionysus gave wine. Icarius gave wine to others, who assumed it was poison. They killed him for this and his daughter found his body and then hung herself. The association is between hanging yourself and swinging Arrephoria • Festival to Athena during which two young girls dressed in white garments, carried “unspoken things” possibly the peplos forAthena which had begun to woven at the feast of Hephaitos months earlier • They carried these things at night from the top of the acropolis down to the garden temenos of Aphrodite, located at the base of theAcropolis. • They then carried something else from the Temenos ofAphrodite back up to the top of the Acropolis Bacchanalia • Asoap-opera like narrative supposedly based off the Senates Consultum de Bacchanalibus by Livy • This supposedly took place in 186 BC which was before he was writing in the 1st centuryAD Tells us that the Senate forbid bacchanalia festivals throughout Italy unless approved by the • Senate • Says that the rites were brought by a low-born Greek to Italy and it quickly spread to Rome • Ayoung man was told by his mother he had to be initiated into the cult, and his lover warned him against it as she used to be a part of it and said terrible things happened • The man refuses his mother and she throws him out of the house - he then stays with his aunt • He tells the Roman consul his story after which the consul interrogates his lover about the rights • Apparently anyone who refused to take part was killed, matrons were dressed up as Bacchae, mingling of sexes and classes, and there was lots of crime and corruption • Perhaps the real problem was that a lot of nobles were involved, so many that they formed a whole new populous • The Consul reports to the senate, who outlaw the bacchanalia • As women formed the majority they were the reason for all the mischief • The other problem was that guys were being sexually passive, which made them like women Basilinna • The wife of theArchon Basileus • She would perform a sacred marriage to Dionysus during theAnthesteria She was also in charge of the 14 Gerarai ‘venerable ones’ • Bona Dea • In 62 BC the festival of Bona Dea took place at the house of Caesar, as traditionally it was at the house of magistrates wife • Claudius dresses up as a woman to seduce Caesar’s wife • He was charged with desecration (for which he was later acquitted) • And Caesar divorced his wife as his wife should be above suspicion We learn from this that obviously womens festivals were taken very seriously • choes • The third day of theAnthesteria • Choes which was considered a day of pollution in which you made libations At home you paint doors with pitch, eat together in silence, drink a lot (every person including • slaves would drink 2.5l! (but they cut their wine) • Children as young as 3 had their own (smaller) pitcher as initiation into the family • Perhaps had to do with sacrifice, where wine acted as blood, perhaps coming from the tradition of the god Dionysus being ripped apart by titans When they were drunk they would put wreaths on pitchers and make procession to his temple. • There would also be a sacred marriage, and act carried out by the Basilinna, wife ofArchon Basileus chytroi • Chytrio which means pots in which they would cook up grains and make an offering to Hermes of the Dead • On this day girls would swing on swings joyfully. • This comes from the myth go Erigone, daughter of Icarius, who was the first person to whom Dionysus gave wine. • Icarius gave wine to others, who assumed it was poison. • They killed him for this and his daughter found his body and then hung herself. • The association is between hanging yourself and swinging Deiknymena • During the Eleusinian Mysteries there were rights carried out in the Telesterion, the main building, in which people were initiated • This specifically refers to “the things shown” in which some sort of object was shown • We don’t know what dromena • During the Eleusinian Mysteries there were rights carried out in the Telesterion, the main building, in which people were initiated • This specifically refers to “the things done” of which we don’t known Eleusinian Mysteries Amystery cult, meaning you couldn't tell people what happened • • Ironically we do have a lot of details • Most important mystery cult in antiquity • Continued until 396 AD when they were shut down Perhaps began in the BronzeAge • • The Homeric Hymn to Demeter in about 7th century BC mentions the founding • Attracted initiates from all over Greece and Rome • Would give the initiate a better lot in the afterlife Associated with Demeter and Persephone, and their myth links in to a lot of the rituals per- • formed • Persephone as Queen of the Dead would ensure your lot in the afterlife • Demeter ensures your good harvest whilst alive • It was open to everyone including women and slaves • The only restrictions were: • You had to buy your own pig • And speak Greek • And couldn't be an initiate if you murdered someone There were 2 stages/levels of initiation: • • 1. Myesis - from the verb ‘to close the eyes’. Someone who went through this was called a Mystes • 2. Epopteia - from the verb ‘to see’. Someone who went through this was called Epoptes • It was celebrated in a week in autumn • Begins with initiates marching to sea, purifying themselves and washing their piglets • Then a procession via the sacred way • They would carry sacred objects with them including the statue of Iacchus • They would stop along the way to sacrifice, pray, and sing • At one point they cross the bridge and meet iambic figures who offer obscenities • When they get to Eleusis there are more obscenities • The day after they would fast and drink a mixture of barley and mint (what Demeter drinks to break her fast in her hymn) called Kykeon After having drunk they carry out initiation • • Some sources suggest there was a ritual drama where they reenact the search by demeter of Persephone thereby sharing in the experiences of the two goddesses • Important role of torches as Demeter carried them whilst looking for Persephone • Darkness and light - temple has forest of columns, and supposedly saw a flash of light • Enactment of Persephone’s emotions in her descent? Suffering/reunion • Sacred officials drawn from the two families: Eumolpidai, Kerykes epopteia • From the verb “to see” • The second stage/level of initiation in the Eleusinian Mysteries • Someone who went through was called Epoptes gentilician priesthood • Tribelike family grouping • Only if you belong to this family can you be part of certain priesthood Kallichoron • Supposedly the well Demeter sat at whilst looking for Persephone kalligeneia • The third day of the Thesmophoria • Means good birth (well-born) • Day of celebration, women making obscene jokes (Iambe) kanephoros • In Aristophanes Lysistrata is listed all the roles of a woman in religion at different stages in their life This role refers to a woman who carries basket, garlands and grains in front of procession that • they would sacrifice before the animal • This is contrasting to what we know of women as being confined and kept legomena During the Eleusinian Mysteries there were rights carried out in the Telesterion, the main • building, in which people were initiated • This specifically rights carried out and refers to “the things said” myesis • Comes from the verb ‘to close the eyes’ • Refers to the first level/stage of initiation in the Eleusinian Mysteries • Someone who went through this was called a mystes nesteia • Second day in the Thesmophoria • Day of mourning and fasting, as Demeter mourned Persephone and didn’t eat all the while • They would sit around statue of the goddess, fasting. pithoigia • First day of theAnthesteria, a spring festival of wine and drinking associated with Dionysus • Pithoigia (the opening of the jars) in which you would go to temple of Dionysus of the marshes and open jars and to taste the new wine Ploutonion Sanctuary of Pluto • • Quite chthonic looking as it is in a cave Pnyx • During the first day of the Thesmophoria, theAnodos, Women would come to this hill (Pnyx) • This was where the assembly took place but the women would take over and live in huts or tents during this festival • They would bring food and sacrificial animals and offerings Telesterion The main building where people would be initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries • Thesmophoria • Means “law-giver” and is the title of Demeter It is a festival for Demeter and Persephone for married women • • Older women were more likely to have had children, thus proving their fertility and this ritual had a lot to do with fertility • 3 days celebrated: • Anodos -Ascent. Women would come to this hill (Pnyx) where the assembly took place but the women would take over and live in huts or tents during this festival. They would bring food and sacrificial animals and offerings • Nesteia - fasting. Day of mourning, as Demeter mourned Persephone and didn’t eat all the while. They would sit around statue of the goddess, fasting. • Kalligeneia - good birth (well-born). Day of celebration, women making obscene jokes (Iambe) • Take piglets and throw them into ground along with cakes shaped like penises • Then they would let the piglets rot until they were decomposed, then pull out and use as com- post - very good for crops! • Aristophanes writes about this festival in the Thesmophoriazusae • Means “the women who celebrate the thesmophoria” • Playwright Euripides feared women would kill him, had relative infiltrate and speak on women’s behalf as a woman says “in real life women are way worse then are depicted by Euripides” • He is found out, and threatens to kill baby of a woman • He then realizes the baby is a wine skin and stabs it • Someone collects the “blood” (wine) • Lesson
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