Women in Anitiquity Test 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Hoeschele

sept 11Class notes: ▪ Regina Hoschele - with two dots above the o ▪ actium (battle of) sept 2, 31 BC = octavian vs. cleopatra and marc anthony. on the ionian sea. octavian won. considered to be the end of the roman republic and the beginning of the roman empire ▪ hymn - song of praise, typically addressed to a God and tells a story of God ▪ Homer - greek poet ▪ sources - ▪ archeological/ material evidence ▪ epigraphy (inscriptions) ▪ artifacts ▪ literature (philosophical, historical, scientific, mythological, poetic etc. ) ▪ Ancient Greece ▪ archaic period - ca. 750-500BC ▪ iliad and the odyssey were written by Homer ▪ just after the alphabet ▪ Classical Period - ca. 500-323 BC (death of Alexander the Great) ▪ Alexander the Great died in 323BC ▪ Athens was the main spot ▪ Sparta was the arch enemy of athens ▪ the parthenon on the acropolis was built between 447-432BC ▪ Hellenistic Period: ca. 323-31 BC (battle of Actium) ▪ thought of as starting after Alexander died ▪ after he died the empire was divided into monarchs ▪ Imperial Period: ca. Rome as new Political power (Greece becomes province in 146BC) ▪ decisive starting point - 31 BC - Battle of Actuim (augustus vs. cleopatra and marc anthony) ▪ Rome (founded in 753 BC) ▪ Roman Republic: ca. 500-mid-first century BC (monarchy overthrown in 509 BC; civil wars in 1st cent. BC lead to end of Republic ▪ Cesar gets assassinated - Augustus is the successor ▪ rome changes to Empire ▪ Roman Empire: ca: 30 BC-3rd cent. AD ▪ Late Antiquity: ca 4th-6th cent. AD ▪ The Parthenon on the Acropolis (Constructed between 447-432 BC) Classical Period ▪ Alexander the Great - 356-323 BC ▪ The Capitoline Wolf (Latin: Lupa Capitolina) is a bronze sculpture of a she-wolf suckling twin infants, inspired by the legend of the founding of Rome. According to the legend, when Numitor, grandfather of the twins Romulus and Remus, was overthrown by his brother Amulius, the usurper ordered the twins to be cast into the Tiber River. They were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them until a herdsman, Faustulus, found and raised them. ▪ The twelve Olympians: Uranus Cronus Zeus Hera Demeter Hestia Posiedon Aprodite Athena Ares Apollo Artemis Hephaestus Hermes ▪ Aphrodite ▪ Roman name: Venus ▪ Epithets: Kypris, Kythereia ▪ Born from member of Uranus (Hesiod) or daughter of Zeus and Dione (Homer) ▪ Goddess of love ▪ Wife of Hephaestus ▪ Mother of Eros ▪ Mistress of Ares ▪ Mortal lovers: Anchises (son: Aeneas) and Adonis ▪ ▪ The birth of Aphrodite (Hesiod, Theogony 178-200) ▪ Zeus cut off Cronus’ penis and a white foam spread around her and out she came ▪ ▪ The judgment of paris: ▪ zeus holds a banquet in celebration of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (parents of achilles ▪ Hera, Athena and Aphrodite were the contestants ▪ Eris gave apple inscribed: “for the fairest one” ▪ Zeus was going to judge but then asked Paris (a trojan mortal) to do it ▪ Hera offered paris to be the king of europe and asia ▪ Athena offered wisdom in war ▪ Aphrodite offered Helen ▪ Greeks expedition to retrieve helen from paris in roy is the basis for the trojan war ▪ ▪ Artemis ▪ Roman name: Diana ▪ Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo ▪ Virgin Goddess ▪ Goddess of hunting ▪ Resided over crucial aspects of life: transition from maidenhood to womanhood: childbirth ▪ Later identified with Selene (moon) ▪ Symbols: bow, arrow stags ▪ ▪ there is a Death of Actaeon, vase ca 470BC ▪ cult statues of Artemis at Ephesos (lots of boobs) ▪ Demeter ▪ roman name: Ceres ▪ daughter of Kronos and Rhea ▪ Mother of Persephone ▪ generation of Zeus - swallowed by father ▪ goddess of harvest and agriculture ▪ epithet: Thesmophoros (law giver) ▪ Symbols: sheaves of wheat, conucopia ▪ ▪ Persephone ▪ roman name: proserpina ▪ daughter of zeus and demeter ▪ spouse of hades ▪ queen of the underworld - on part of the year in hades, the other on mt. olympus ▪ ▪ Athena ▪ roman name: Minerva ▪ Pallas Athene (etymology unclear, maybe “maiden” or “weapon brandishing” ▪ born from the head of Zeus - zeus swallows a female goddess (to incorporate the female principle product ▪ Goddess of war, wisdom, weaving, craftmanship ▪ virgin ▪ symbols: owl, olive, helmet and amour ▪ epithet: glaukopis (grey-eyed/ owl-eyed) ▪ patron deity of athens ▪ protectress of heroes (perseus, herakles - arch eney/ ara, odysseus, jason) ▪ then from his head, by himself ▪ ▪ he produced Athene of the gray eyes great goddess, weariless, waker of battle noise leader armies, a goddess queen who delights in war cris, onslaughts, and battles ▪ athena is the patron saint of athens ▪ athena’s and poseidon’s contest - made ppl not to have the right to vote ▪ Hera ▪ Roman name: Juno ▪ Daughter of Kronos and Rheia ▪ sister and wife of Zeus ▪ Goddess of marriage ▪ symbols: diadem, scepter, bowl, pomegranate, peacock ▪ often portrayed as the jealous wife of Zeus and as opposing his children from other women ▪ Hestia ▪ on the Zeus line ▪ the flame in the temple of vesta wen tout in 390AD ▪ first to be swallowed by Cronus and therefore last to be thrown up ▪ Sept 11 - reading notes The Homeric Hymns - To Demeter ▪ Demeter - mom of Persephone ▪ Peresphone - daughter of Zeus and Demeter ▪ Zeus gave Peresphone to Hades ▪ Gaia sent forth flowers to tempt the girl. when she was tempted - Hades came and took her ▪ Demeter searched for 9 days ▪ Hecate and then Demeter and Hecate went to Helios ▪ when Demeter finds out its Zeus she goes to the earth and is found by some girls ▪ she tells them that she is Doso from Crete and was stolen by pirates ▪ Iambe - tells jokes to cheer up Demeter and then she smiles and laughs and eats ▪ Baubo/Iambe - makes Demeter laugh by showing her junk ▪ baubo and iambe serve the same purpose in two different versions of the stories ▪ ▪ so then she is going to turn Demophoon - the son of Celeos into a God - so she buries him in the fire every night and then his mom finds out and is pissed ▪ in order to make someone immortal you have to place them in the fire many times ▪ in order to be a god you have to have someone pray to you ▪ so Demeter makes a famine until Zeus notices and sends Iris to go get her ▪ Hermes goes to convince Hades to let Phesephone go be with her mother ▪ Hades gives her a pomegranate to eat before she goes ▪ you can only return to earth from hades if you haven’t eaten anything ▪ symbolic significance of demeter going to hades each year is the seasons transitioning ▪ Hera seduces Zeus ▪ Hera likes the Danaans - that Poseidon is helping ▪ asks Aphrodite to help her seduce Zeus ▪ aprodite takes a zone from her breast and gives it to hera ▪ she asks sleep to help her but he doesn’t want to cause he is scared but she offers him a wife and he agrees ▪ and Zeus sees her and becomes lustful and the do it ▪ and after he falls asleep and Sleep goes to tell Posiedon that Zeus is asleep Homer - The Odyssey “song of Aprodites and Ares” ▪ Aprhodite is married to Hephaestus ▪ but is having an affair with Ares ▪ the sun god Helios saw the doing it and told Hephaestus ▪ Hephaestus made a net - and then went on a trip ▪ Hephaestus gathers together the other gods - Poseidon, hermes, apollo ▪ they laugh ▪ Posiedon asks Hephaestus to set Ares free ▪ Poseidon offers to pay the debt Ares owes Hephaestus if Ares runs away Book III: 138-164 Actaeon returns from the hunt ▪ Actaeon is hunting and finishes up for the day ▪ Diana/ Artemis goes for a swim ▪ Actaeon sees diana naked and is turned into a stag ▪ his mind is still the same - he doesn’t know what to do. go home? or stay in the woods. ▪ and then his dogs catch his smell ▪ they say Diana the Quiver-bearer’s anger was not appeased, until his life had ended in innumerable wounds Sept 18 - Class Notes ▪ woman who brings everything that bad - pandora ▪ prometheus is a helper of humans - prometheus steals the fire back from zues and gives it to the humans ▪ as punishment prometheus is tied to a stone and an eagle eats his liver every day ▪ didactic - means teaching something ▪ Helen is Zeus’ mother ▪ Leda and the Swan is a story and subject in art from Greek mythology in which the god Zeus seduced, or raped, Leda in the form of aswan. According to later Greek mythology, Leda bore Helen and Polydeuces, children of Zeus, while at the same time bearing Castor and Clytemnestra, children of her husband Tyndareus, the King of Sparta. ▪ Leda’s wife is the king of sparta ▪ starting ab ovo - latin means from the egg ▪ homer starts the story of the illiad from the 10th year of the trojan war ▪ Horace - Roman poet of the 1st cent. BC - ▪ “for before Helen a cunt was the most terrible cause of war” (Horace, Satires 1.3.1008-8) ▪ ▪ Stesichorus - greek roman poet ▪ blamed helen for the roman war ▪ helen has become immortal ▪ she made him blind so he recanted ▪ palinode - pali means again and node means song ▪ made up a song saying it wasn’t her fault ▪ ▪ Encomiums - praises - mortal version of a Hymn ▪ Helen is not at fault ▪ if she followed paris because of divine will ▪ if she was persuaded by paris’ speech ▪ if she fell in love and eros inspired him ▪ ▪ penelope ▪ the enduring patient wife of odysseus ▪ Adystus - means different ▪ no one knows if her husband is still alive ▪ she weaves all day and then undoes her work at night to keep away suitors ▪ ▪ clytemnestra ▪ is the opposite of penelope ▪ in ancient Greek legend, was the wife of Agamemnon, king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Mycenae or Argos. ▪ In the Oresteia by Aeschylus, she was a femme fatale who murdered her husband, Agamemnon ▪ ▪ medea ▪ jason goes to Kolchis to retrieve the golden fleece - which is the fleece of a ram that transported two children. the fleece is in the realm of the kolchin king. who is not greek. jason goes with a crew of other greeks and the dude says no ways and gives him various tasks ▪ with the help of Medea jason survives ▪ she helps him with spells ▪ by helping jason she betrays her own family ▪ she travels back with jason and they have children ▪ but he decides he wants to marry a greek princess ▪ she kills the greek princess and kills his children ▪ performed in 431BC ▪ a woman who takes action is perceived as bad ▪ ▪ ▪ Lucretia ▪ this is the reason for the romans to end the monarchy ▪ brutis gets rid of the king ▪ happened in 510BC ▪ ▪ Pheadra ▪ Aphrodite makes pheadra fall in love with hippolitis ▪ because hippolitis refuses to worship aphrodite ▪ pheadra confesses this to hippolitis ▪ hippolitis does rant below ▪ pheadra kills herself ▪ husband of peadra (father of hippolitis) finds her and blames hippolitis of raping her ▪ because everyone is sworn to secrecy they cannot tell the truth ▪ hippolitis is exiled and then is run over by a bull ▪ PDF Notes ▪ prometheus steals the fire - jan cossiers 17th cent ▪ pandora ▪ but the woman with her hands lifting away ▪ the lid from the great jar scattered its contents, and her design was Sad troubles for mankind Works and Days - 94-95 ▪ The Trojan Elders Behold Helen (Iliad 3.150-160) ▪ Helen’s family tree Reading notes: sept 1854. pandora. Boetia, early 7th cent. BC (Hesiod, Works and Days 42 - 105. G) ▪ explains why man’s life is so hard ▪ written by hesiod ▪ explains how woman was given to man’s representative Epimetheus “Afterthinker” as punishment for his brother Prometheus crimes against Zeus ▪ Zeus hid fire but Prometheus (son of Iapetus) stole it back and gave it to men ▪ Zeus became angry - “I will give them an evil they can enjoy in their hearts while putting their arms round an evil of their very own. ▪ Hephaestus - mixed earth with water and put it in a humans voice and stength - with the fair form of a virgin ▪ Athena taught her to work- weave ▪ Aphrodite - grace on her head and passion and worries that gnaw at the limbs ▪ Hermes - slayer of Argos - put lies and tricky speeches ▪ named her pandora ▪ and they did not have to toil before she came but after she came they had evils ▪ prometheus punishment - tied to a stone and his liver is eaten by an eagle every day until Hercules comes and frees him 56. the nature of woman. Boetia, early 7th cent. BC (Hesiod, Theogeny 590-612. G) ▪ cannot put up with harsh poverty - only with plenty ▪ bees (men) make white wax while drones (women) stay i and are fed by the man ▪ if they don’t marry they will have plenty in life but sad old age with no one to tend him ▪ a good wife - evil balances good in his lifetime ▪ a bad wife - undying pain in his heart and his evil is without cure 57. The female mind. Amorgos, 6th cent. BC (Semonide, On Women. Tr. H. Lloyd-Jones. G) ▪ satire ▪ good behaviour is defined in terms of service to a woman’s husband ▪ long-bristled sow - dirty house ▪ bitch - wants to hear everything and know everything/ always yapping ▪ moulded out of the earth - only eats and does not feel cold ▪ made from the sea - moody ▪ ash grey ass - puts up with everything / but eats ▪ ferret - very bad - nothing is beautiful or desirable ▪ proud mare w/ a long mane - doesn’t work/ vain ▪ monkey - ugly/ conniving ▪ bee - good wife ▪ women are the worst plague men have clytemnestra ▪ bound men to women “with a fetter that cannot be broken. Because of this some have gone to Hades fighting for a women 58. The best days in a womans life. Ephesus, 6th cent. BC (Hipponax, Fr. 68 West. G) ▪ “The two best days in a woman’s life are when someone marries her and when he carries her dead body to the grave” 61. The Worthlessness of Women. Athens 428 BC (Euripides, Hippolytus 616-55). G ▪ the old nurse tells Hippolytus that is stepmother Phaedra is in love with him. ▪ Hippolytus refuses to worship Aphrodite ▪ this that women and an economic liability ▪ thinks they should be held in solitary confinement ▪ men is best off with a nonentity - a women who sits in the house useless in her stupidity ▪ hippolities - refused to worship aphrodite ▪ phaedra step mother - wants to have hippolities ▪ 69. Juvenal on women in general. Rome, 2nd cent. AD (Satire 6. exc. L) ▪ written by Juvenal ▪ Eppia - the wife of a senator went off with a gladiator to Pharos ▪ if there is a good reason for undertaking a dangerous voyage then women are fearful ▪ courageous only if they are doing something elicit ▪ because he was a gladiator - she married him ▪ also hates smart women ▪ and if you make a women pregnant - you might end up being the father of an ethiopian 166. The rape of Lucretia. Traditionally, Ardea, near Rome, c. 510 BC (Livy, History of Rome Late 1st cent. Bc-early 1st cent. AD. L) ▪ Sextus Tarquinius - everyone is at his house and they get to talking about how virtuous their wives are so they go around to different homes to see ▪ when they get to Tarquinius Collantinus’ house - Lucretia is being chaste and weaving ▪ Sextus Tarquinius rapes Lucretia ▪ Lucretia - “ as for me, although i absolve myself of guilt, i do not release myself from paying the penalty. From now on, no woman can use the example of Lucretia to live unchaste” and she kills herself. Encounter of Menclaos and Helen in Egypt (Euripides, Helena 557-96) ▪ Helen and Menelaos meet in Sept 18 - handout notes:The Trojan Elders behold Helen (Homer, Illiad 2. 150. 6) ▪ These were too old to fight, but they were fluent orators, and say on the tower like cicadas that chirrup delicately from the boughs of some high tree in a wood. when they saw helen coming towards the tower, they said softly to one another, “Small wonder th
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