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CLA 219 Midterm Rev TERMS

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Höschele

CLA 219 – M IDTERMR EVIEW 09/11 – 10/09/12 TERMS 09/11 - Actium (battle of): 31 BC, the battle in which Octavian (future Augustus Caesar) defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra, annexing Egypt to the Roman Empire - Hieros gamos: lit., ‘sacred (holy) marriage’; refers to a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities (Wiki) - Hymn: a prayer that is sung in meter during religious occasions, often dedicated and invokes a deity; Homeric hymns the most well- known Greek hymns; Song of praise, addressed to deities, talk about their attributes and their life - Iambic poetry: invective, obscene poetry; derived from Iambos, the old palace woman who cheered up Demeter (Greek goddess of agriculture) when Persephone was abducted by Hades; has a meter - Invective: “attack” poetry – obscene and insulting - Misogyny: hatred of women - Myth: often synonymous with ‘legend,’ a type of narrative that usually centers on interactions between the divine and the mortals, and involves supernatural occurrences; formulaic 09/18 - Ab ovo: lit., ‘from the egg’ – to begin from the very start - Argonautica: epic written by Apollonius of Rhodes about the adventures of Jason and the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece - Barbarian: from the Greek ‘barbaros’ – meaning those who speak gibberish (foreign language, to the Greeks, sound like “bar-bar- bar”); people who are non-Greeks - Comedy: one of the 2 genres of plays; often humorous but obscene, satirical, political and critical of Greek society, associated with Dionysus - Didactic: instructive narrative; famous example – Hesiod’s “Works and Days” - Encomium: hymn / praise to man; e.g., encomium to Helen by Gorgias - Epic/epos: a poem celebrating in stately, formal verse the achievements of heroes, gods and demigods (heroic epic, e.g., Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey, Vergil’s Aeneid) - Palinode: “again song” – a retraction; a tradition born from taking back the blame from Helen for fear of divine retribution (for slander) – e.g., Stesichorus; an ode in which the writer retracts a view or sentiment expressed in an earlier poem - Potiphar’s wife motif: older woman, usually a stepmother or a benefactress, who tries to seduce her stepson or a younger man, whose rejection makes her turn to her husband and demand the younger man be punished, usually killed - Tragedy: a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing 09/25 - Androgynous: a person neither male or female; ‘blurred’ gender – lit., “man-woman” – a combination of male and female characteristics - Apotropaic: protective; intended to ward off evil - Discourse: written and spoken communication / debate - Erastes: older, active partner in a pederastic relationship - Eromenos: younger, passive partner in a pederastic relationship - Herm: stone boundary marker; a stone pillar with a carved out phallus and topped with a bust, usually of a prominent figure (e.g., politician, orator) - Hermaphrodite: person with both male and female attributes - Hetaera: female escort, courtesans who were highly-educated, sophisticated companions and involved in a long-term relationship (sometimes sexual) with a man, involving exchange of gifts o Cannot marry a hetaera in Athens - Lex Iulia de adulteris coercendis: a law passed by Augustus that punished adultery with banishment, in which the two guilty parties are sent to two different islands, and part of their property confiscated; fathers can kill their daughters and their partners, and
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