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CLA 219 Midterm Review

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Regina Höschele

CLA 219 W OMEN IN A NTIQUITY 09/11 10/09/12 Midterm Review Sources for study of Women in Antiquity - Archaeological / material evidence - Epigraphy (inscriptions) - Artifacts - Literature (philosophical, historical, scientific, mythological, poetic, etc.) - What we know/ learn is mediated by these evidences which had been provided by MALES - Historical periods: o Greece Archaic ca. 750-500 BC --- Homeric writing, poets, Sappho Classical ca. 500-323 BC --- ended with the death of Alexander the Great Hellenistic ca. 323-31 BC --- ended with the Battle of Actium Imperial Rome as a political power (Greece became a province in 146 BC) o Rome --- founded in 753 BC, according to legends Roman Republic , ca. 500 mid-1 c. BC (monarchy overthrown in st 509 BC, civils wars in 1 c. BC rdad to the creation of the Republic) Roman Empire ca. 30 BC 3 c. BC Late Antiquity 4 -6 c. AD - The term classic means a great piece of work o Classical = exemplary, the height of culture ~ but this is not true - There are few public roles for women, all else is domestic o A lot of misogyny is directed to women o Often secluded, dominated by the men - Men in charge of public roles physical and military duties, political offices, etc. The 12 Olympians CLA 219 Midterm Rev 2 - Aphrodite / Venus o Epithets: Kypris, Kytheria o Born from Uranus (Hesiod) ~ from the genitals >> aphros = foam OR daughter of Zeus and Dione (Homer) o Goddess of Love o Wife of Hephaestus, mistress of Ares, mother of Eros o Mortal lovers: Anchises (son Aeneas), Adonis Caesar claims descent from Venus because his family, the Julii, were said to be descended from Aeneas and therefore divine o Castration of Uranus fresco by Giorgio Vasani o Hesiods Theogony 178-200 ~ birth of Aphrodite (H.G. Evelyn-White) o Aphrodite is also sometimes called Philommedes love to smile OR Greek for penis o Aphrodite Anadyomene = Aphrosite Rising Anadyomene = rising out of o Aphrodite a popular subject of Renaissance paintings because it gives artist the opportunity to create a naked form of the female body o Myth: Aphrodites and Ares tryst and Hephaestus trap (Odyssey) Showed that women are property o Aphrodite is more about Lust and Passion than Marital Fidelity o Myth: Judgment of Paris (Iliad) Rufinus poem about the Judgment of Paris was all about butts - Artemis / Diana o Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo o Virgin goddess of Hunting Chastity associated with hunting o Resided over crucial aspects of womens life: transition from maidenhood to womanhood, childbirth o Later identified with Selene (Moon) CLA 219 Midterm Rev 3 o Symbols: bow and arrow, stag o Myth: Death of Actaeon o Temple at Ephesus (Asia Minor) with a cult statue of Artemis (one of the 7 Ancient Wonders) Cult statue depicts the goddess having a chestful of breasts (or testicles) - Demeter / Ceres o Daughter of Kronos and Rhea, mother of Persephone o Goddess of Harvest and Agriculture o Epithet: Thesmophoros (Law-giver) o Symbols: sheaves of wheat, cornucopia - Persephone / Proserpina o Daughter of Zeus and Demeter, spouse of Hades o Queen of the Underworld Spends half of the year in the Underworld, the other half in Mt. Olympus o Epithet: Kore (Maiden) o Homeric hymn to Demeter is about the Abduction / Rape of Persephone Hymn = song of praise, typically addressed to deities, talk of their attributes and their life o Iambe (old woman from palace) cheers up Demeter Supposed inventor of the iambos (iambic poetry) Poetry with certain content of attack (insulting, obscene) Invective o [In an alternate version, same figure but different name] Baubo cheers up Demeter by raising skirt and exposing genitals Baubo figurine vagina with face (terracotta cultic statue) = Magritte, Le viol painting **Iambe and Baubo serve the function in different versions of the Rape of Persephone myth - Athena / Minerva o Pallas Athene (means either maiden or weapon-brandishing) o Born from Zeus head (swallowed mother Metis to prevent a successor that could overthrow him because women in general tends to support the younger generation in the battle for succession) o Born full-grown and in full armour o Virgin goddess of wisdom, war, weaving and craftsmanship o Symbols: owl, olive, helmet, armour o Epithet: Glaukopis (grey- / owl-eyed) o Patron deity of Athens o Protectors of heroes (Perseus, Herakles, Odysseus, Jason) CLA 219 Midterm Rev 4 o Birth of Athena, Thoegony 924-6 o Athena and Poseidon, contest for Athens The thinking that women should not make political decisions was said to be caused by the involvement of women in voting who should be the patron deity of Athens (there was one more women than men) **Parthenon has a replica in Nashville - Hera / Juno o Daughter of Kronos and Rhea, sister-wife of Zeus o Goddess of Marriage o Symbols: Diadem, scepter, bowl, pomegranate, peacock o Often opposes Zeus (bastard) children, especially. Herakles o Hera seduction and distraction of Zeus during the Trojan War - Hestia / Vesta o Virgin goddess of the hearth, fire, and the household o Daughter of Kronos and Rhea o Not one of the 12 Olympians Replaced by Dionysius o As Vesta, served by the Roman Vestal Virgins (in the Forum Romanum) As long as the fire burns, Rome is protected The altar burned down in 391 AD when Christianity became popular o First to be swallowed by Kronos and last to come up, making her the oldest AND the youngest of her line Women in Myth Praise and Blame Pandora - Epitome of evil, source of female wickedness, revenge on Prometheus for helping mankind (stole fire) - Pandora = all-gifted/ gifted all evil o She was a gift to Epimetheus (afterthought), brother of Prometheus o Fashioned by the gods o Opened a pithos (jar) not a box - Didactic (teaching) ethos ~ Works and Days, Hesiod o Contains a passage regarding Pandora o Trouble and hardship born from Pandoras act and obviously shes a woman (very misogynistic)
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