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CLA 219 Midterm Rev READING NOTES.doc

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Regina Höschele

CLA 219 Midterm Review 09/11-10/09/12 Reading Notes Song of Ares and Aphrodite (Odyssey 8.266-369) – 09/11 - Ares and Aphrodite having an affair – often use husband’s bed to make out - Helios saw them the entire time and told Hephaestus, Aphrodite’s husband - Hephaestus, mad, went to his forge and made “a net no one can break and loosen” - Hephaestus rigged the net up on his bed and announced he was going to Lemnos - Mars heard and hurried to spend some time with Aphrodite, and as they were making out in bed, the net fell and entrapped them - Helios, seeing it happen, told Hephaestus who turned around and went home - Arriving home, Hephaestus called onto the gods to witness the incident and the gods came, laughing at the entrapped couple while the goddesses stayed away, ashamed o Hephaestus demanded his courting gifts be returned by Zeus for Aphrodite’s and Ares’ freedom o “Bad deeds don’t pay, the slow one overtakes the swift – just as Hephaestus … has caught Ares… Yes, he is lame, but he’s a crafty one. So Ares now must pay a fine for his adultery” - However, Poseidon asked Hephaestus to let the couple go and promised that Ares would pay for his deed (if not, he would pay for him) - Hephaestus then released the couple who escaped, Ares to Thrace, and Aphrodite to Paphos Death of Actaeon – Ovid, Metamorphosis (3.138-252) – 09/11 - Actaeon, Cadmus’ grandson, came home from a hunt in the mountains one day - In Gargaphie, a valley sacred to Diana, there’s a cave and a pool where Diana often comes to bathe - Diana has been undressed and is being bathed by her nymphs when Actaeon accidentally wanders into the sacred grove - The nymphs stood to shield their mistress but Diana towered over them – the goddess, upset, threw a handful of water at Actaeon in lieu of her arrows which she had put aside before o “Now you may tell, if you can tell that is, of having seen me naked!” - Actaeon then transformed into a stag, antlers and all, but with his mind unchanged - Then his own hunting dogs caught sight of him and gave chase (litany of dog names) - Stag-Actaeon was then mauled to death by his own hunting dogs, with his friends egging the dogs on – his death satisfied Diana Pygmalion – Ovid, Metamorphosis (10.243-97) – 09/18 - Pygmalion, offended with the female nature, decided to live as a bachelor CLA Midterm Rev 2 - However, he carved a female figure so expertly from ivory that he fell in love with it and treated it as a real-life person - At the festival of Venus, he made an offering to the gods to pray for the ivory girl to be his bride - Venus heard his wish and approved – so when Pygmalion went home and kissed the ivory girl, he realized that it was soft, warm and alive - The couple were married and later had a son named Paphos from whom the island was named after Gorgias, Encomium of Helen – 09/18 - Name of Helen a byword for calamities - Gorgias wants to absolve Helen of all the blame put on her by writers regarding her being the cause of the Trojan War - Affirms her divine parentage as daughter of Leda and Zeus and the reason for her beauty that produces the greatest erotic desires in men - The crime which is assigned to Helen is not her fault o “Either by the wishes of Fortune and plans of the gods and decrees of Necessity she did what she did, or abducted by force, or persuaded by speeches, or conquered by Love” - Wishes of fortune cause - will of a god cannot be hindered by human forethought for the god is superior and must not be hindered by inferior humans, therefore the responsibility falls on Fortune and the god - “Abducted by force, unlawfully constrained and unjustly victimized,” the one responsible is the abductor and Helen the victim - If persuasive discourse deceived her soul, it is not her fault for discourses can moved the soul, “a great potentate” that can make one ‘feel’ o Inspired incantations brings pleasure and takes off pain o Helen swayed by opinion not reason – “discourse the persuader of the soul” o Therefore, the persuader is to blame and Helen was just unfortunate - If Love was what happened, Helen is not to blame because isn’t Love a god? Her passionate love blinded her – a misfortune Aristophanes, Plato’s Symposium – 09/25 - Discourse to praise love, best friend to all men, helper and healer of all ills - Nature of man and what has happened to it o Three sexes – man, woman, and the union of the two (androgynous) o “Primeval man was round, his back and sides forming a circle; four hands and feet; one head and two faces, looking opposite ways and set on a round neck and precisely alike; also four ears, two privy members, and the remainder to correspond” o They were the children of the sun (man), the earth (woman) and the moon (man-woman) and, strong and great, they attacked the gods CLA Midterm Rev 3 o As the gods didn’t want to lose the sacrifices and worship of mankind, nor could they tolerate such insolence, Zeus decided to cut them into two, diminishing their strength and increasing their numbers o Apollo was tasked to heal the wounded beings, giving a turn to the face and moulding the belly, the breast, as well as the navel, a reminder of the primeval state o After the division, the two halves, desiring to be one once more, embraced each other and later died of self-neglect because they couldn’t let go of the other – and if one died, the other just moves on to another half o Zeus then invented a plan to save them – he turned the genitals towards the front and so they sowed seeds in one another (as opposed to the ground as before) and bred as they embraced – man and woman continued the race, man and man satisfied each other o “So ancient is the desire of one another which is implanted in us, reuniting our original nature, seeking to make one of two, and to heal the state of man” - Men who were part of the double nature (the androgynous beings) are lovers of women (heterosexuals) – adulterers are of this breed - Women who were part of the women have female attachments - Men who were part of the men have affection for males, the best of boys and youths, the most manly nature o Not shameless because they are valiant and manly, have a manly countenance and they embrace what is like them – become statesmen; they are lovers of youth, and are not naturally inclined to marry or have children, unless if it’s custom - Meeting the other half will fill both with amazement and love, and both will live together forever, their desire not born of sexual feelings but of something inexplicable deep within the soul – becoming one instead of two is their deepest desire - “And the reason is that human nature was originally one and we were a whole, and the desire and pursuit of the whole is called love” Aeschines: Against Timarchus (1-20, 37-76, 110-1, 134-9) – 09/25 - Speech shows Athenian attitude to homosexuality - Timarchus, an Athenian prosecutor, was excluded from office when he was charged of homosexuality - Law dictating adult men interaction with young boys in a professional setting (i.e., teachers, gymnasiarch, choragus) o Open school-rooms not earlier than sunrise and close them before sunset o No older men permitted within the school-rooms, unless he is the son of the teacher, a brother, or a daughter’s husband – any who break this law is subject to death CLA Midterm Rev 4 o Superintendents of gymnasia shall not allow adult men to partake in the contest of Hermes with the boys – those who do shall be liable to penalties prescribed for the seduction of free-born youth o Every choragus who shall be appointed by the people must be more than 40 years old - Law dictating that if any boy is let out for hire as a prostitute, his guardian (father, brother, uncle) shall be prosecuted, and the boy freed from any obligation to support them come adulthood - Law dictating that if any person acts as pander (i.e., pimp) in the case of free- born boys and women, they shall be subject to heavy penalties - Law dictating that if any outrage a free-born child, the guardian of the child shall demand a specific penalty – same penalty to those who abuse the persons of slaves - Law dictating that “if any Athenian shall have prostituted his person, he shall not be permitted to become one of the nine archons (because the official wears the wreath); nor to discharge the office of priest (because he’s not clean in
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