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Terms and Proper Names for the Midterm

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Höschele

Midterm Prep Terms Actium (battle of) The battle was a naval battle of the Final War of the Roman Republic fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of MarkAntony and Cleopatra VII Took place in 31 BC on the Ionian Sea near the city ofActium, at the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece hieros gamos Meaning the holy marriage Asexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted by human participants representing the deities Does not presuppose actual performance in ritual Simulate union to promote fertility hymn These are songs of praise Often performed before the recitation of epic E.g. The Hymn to Demeter, which is attributed to homer (as are most, if not all, though doubtful he wrote it) iambic poetry It is said that Iambe is the founder of Iambic meter poetry She was an old servant who tried to cheer up Demeter at the house of King Celeos by showing her genitals and making lewd jokes This type of poetry is always containing some form of attack (laying blame, being obscene or in- sulting) Iambe is also called Baubo invective Invective poetry lays blame; it is a poem of attack and denigrates the subject Usually women are the subject E.g. The Hymn to Demeter is an example misogyny Hatred of women myth Asacred narrative usually etiological (explanatory) either of the world, or how humankind came to be in its present form In a very broad sense the word can refer to any traditional story Usually involves supernatural characters Can be overelaborated accounts of historical events, allegory, or personification of natural phe- nomena Transmitted to convey religious or idealized experience, to establish behavioral models, and to teach Midterm Prep Amyth can be told several different ways, with different details. They have very basic skeletons and the details vary ab ovo Literally meaning from the egg Refers to telling a story from the very start Derivative of Helens birth from the egg Instead of Homer beginning the story of the Iliad from her birth, her starts in the tenth year of the Trojan war, thus not ab ovo Later Greek writers assert that even in the 2nd centuryAD the shells of an egg were still present in Spartan temple Argonautica The Argonautica byApollonius of Rhodes tells of the myth of Jason and theArgonauts to re- trieve the Golden Fleece from Colchis Colchis is non-greek (Barbaros) and is therefore threatening KingAeetes refuses Jasons request, tells him to do x, y and z before hell give over the fleece (and the tasks are impossible) Jason fulfills the tasks with the help of Medea, the daughter ofAbets, who has fallen in love with him Together the flee with the golden fleece and bring it back to Greece During the voyage back she cuts up her brother and throws the pieces overboard She has betrayed her own family by helping Jason, her only option was to go with him The Argonautica consists of four books which tell of the journey of theArgonauts and how they fled fromAeetes barbarian Greek barbaros So named because their foreign tongue sounded like barbarbarto the Greeks comedy Greek comedy is raunchy and perverse, full of obscenities Actors often wear big fake phalluses Vase paintings depicting Comedic scenes are quite suggestive didactic Agenre of teaching E.g., Works and Days by Hesiod is a didactic epos It primarily addresses Hesiods brother, Perses Teaches Perses how to be good and work for his livelihood encomium Meaning praise Essentially the mortal version of praise (a song of praise of anthropoi) Midterm Prep epic/epos Epics/epos are long narratives which most often deal with wars palinode Palin = again; ode = song the again song Essentially where you take back what was said before E.g., the Greek poet Stesichorus writes a song in which he blames Helen for the Trojan war. For his slanderous poem he loses his eyesight (courtesy of her brothers) He then recants a song saying she is not to be blamed This is part of a tradition to the blame away from Helen Potiphars wife motif Exemplified in Hippolytus by Euripides In revenge for Hippolytus failure to worship her,Aphrodite makes his stepmother fall in love with him. She sends her nurse to entreat him. He refuses her, and she turns the story around to her husband (he came at me) in a letter to her husband and then kills herself, leaving her husband to punish his son The name of this motif is taken from the bible when the wife of Potiphar makes an attempt on Joseph, and at his rejection she turns the story around to her husband tragedy Genre of theatre Doesnt necessarily have a bad ending, just a serious subject matter E.g., Euripides Helena androgynous According to plato there were originally 3 sexes: male, female, and androgynous Androgynous was one part male and one part female Had a negative connotation in Platos day When Zeus split the androgynous the result was adulterous men and women apotropaic warding off evil function attributed to the phallus discourse Institutionalized way of thinking E.g., sexuality relating to power where the male is active and the other is passive erastes Means penetrator The lover and older man in a pederastic relationship, active in politics, military and head of household Doesnt usually have a wife when in a pederastic relationship - they marry quite late (30s)
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