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Midterm Prep

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Regina Höschele

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Midterm Study NotesNOTE I WAS UNABLE TO UPLOAD IMAGES SO SORRYHistorical OverviewAncient GreeceArchaic ca 750500 BCThe age of Sappho and other lyric poetsDuring this time the Iliad and the Odyssey were first written downClassical ca 500323 BCCentred on AthensConsidered the birth of democracy where decisions were made by the public The public however consisted solely of free menCompetitive nature between Athens and SpartaThe role of women between these two polis varied immensely the status of women was not the same everywhere nor at the same timeThe two polis fought each other in the Peloponnesian war and Athens loses political powertimeless when something is so great that it is stil relevant Classic refers to something Eg we still read the OdysseyMeans exemplary the heigh of high cultureOften people assume there is nothing of great value after the Classical period or that things diminish This is not soHellenistic ca 32330 BCFocusses on the split of Alexanders empire into separate monarchsThis period ends with the battle of ActiumMany previous civil wars led up to the Battle of ActiumThe battle was a naval battle of the Final War of the Roman Republic and fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and CleopatraTook place in 31 BC on the Ionian Sea near the city of Actium at the Roman province of Epirus vetus in GreeceImperial ca 146 BCRome founded in 753 BCRoman Republic ca 500mid 1st cent BCRoman Empire ca 30 BC3rd cent ADLate Antiquity ca 4th6th cent ADRomans were a great military power the Greeks a great intellectual powerThe OlympiansCronus father of the Gods had a nasty habit of eating his childrenHe feared that one would grow up to succeed him as he had his fatherRhea mother of Zeus tricked her husband Cronus into eating a stone rather than his sonZeus was raised elsewhere and when he came of age he conquered his father and freed his siblingsMidterm Study NotesThe 12 Olympians consisted of Zeus Jupiter Hera Juno Demeter Ceres Poseidon Neptune Hestia Vesta and their offspring or progeniesAphrodite Venus Athena Minerva Ares Mars Apollo Artemis Diana Hephaestus VulcanAphroditeVenusGoddess of love and beauty and embodiment of lust and beautyBorn from Uranus genitals when castrated by his son Cronus for his crimes against his motherwife and children When they hit the waters near Cyprus she was born from the foamOr the daughter of Zeus and DioneHer epithets include Kypris from HomerKythereia from HesiodPhilomedea meaning the one who smilesderived from the Greek word for penis see her birth story aboveAnadyomene meaning rising up of the waterOver the centuries artists have been particularly fascinated with this epithet as it allows them to portray the female body as nude which is often tabo0Wife of Hephaestus but she is not really made for marriagesShe goes on to be the mistress of Apollo by whom she has Eros cupidHephaestus who is fed up with his wifes running around fashions an invisible net and stretches it above the lovers bed When next Aphrodite cheats with Ares the net falls and entangles them Hephaestus calls to the other gods to witness the lovers shameHephaestus calls her fair but dishonest and asks for the price he paid Zeus for her to be repaidSong of Ares and Aphrodite Odyssey 8266369This scene is in Her mortal lovers include Adonis and Anchises by whom she has Aeneas the founder of Rome Caesar and later Augustus as well as the Julii clan claimed to be descended for Julus son of AeneasAncient religion differs because the gods can experience human emotions and trials such as lust and shame and dwell in immoralityAphrodite and the Judgment of ParisDuring the Judgement of Paris the three goddesses Aphrodite Athena and Hera all promised different things in order to be judged the fairest Her offers him position as ruler of the known world Athena offers martial knowledge and Aphrodite offers the fairest woman to love Helen wife of MenelausHis theft of her starts the Trojan warHer beauty is too great and is consequently threateningArtemisDianaSister of Apollo daughter of Leto
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