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CLA 219 Midterm II Review TERMS

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Regina Höschele

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CLA 219 – Midterm II Review – TERMS 10/23 – 11/06/12 10/23 - Archon – (Grk., ruler, lord) title of a public office, chief magistrate of a polis - Aste – female members of the polis, no rights whatsoever - Coemptio – Roman law, transfer of authority through exchange of goods – symbolic sale of daughter o A ceremony symbolizing the sale of a woman to a man and bringing the woman under the manus of the man (plebeian marriage) - Confarreatio – Roman religious ceremony, 10 witnesses, 2 priests, sharing of grain (cake) o Patrician form of marriage, woman passed directly from manus of father to new husband o Flamen Dialis preside over wedding o Prerequisite for the parents of a Vestal Virgin and Flamen Dialis candidate - Ekdosis – Greek, giving out of a woman to the bridegroom - Engye – (engue) a verbal contract, betrothal between the maiden’s guardian and her suitor – necessary prelude to ekdosis (engagement) o Maiden never consulted; more like a business transaction (transfer of property) - Epikleros – Grk., heiress, a daughter to whom the father’s property is attached upon his death with no male heirs (biological or adopted) o Upon marrying, the property cannot be touched by her husband and passes to her male descendants o Solon, decree that epikleros have sex three times a month to be able to conceive a male heir o If married before father’s death, supposed to divorce her husband and then marry her uncle (who will divorce his own wife) to keep the property within the family and continue the bloodline – not viewed as incest nor is it a common practice - Kyrios – Grk., guardian (kurios) – refer to maiden’s father or husband (or nearest male relative, in the case of a deceased father) o Trans., lord, master - Manus (with/without) – Roman marriage, two types – sine manus and cum manus o Sine manus (without) – wife is still under the legal control of father; entails more freedom and easier divorce o Cum manus (with) – wife is placed under husband’s power, now belongs to husband’s household; legal status of woman equivalent to a daughter’s o Either is done with the approval of the pater familias (head of the family) if both are subject to the authority of their fathers - Metic – resident alien, doesn’t have citizen rights within the polis - Moicheia – Grk., adultery o Considered worse than rape because the latter is unwanted and violent o Abuse of property by complicit parties o Woman is complicit to the act – threat to the household’s stability because woman broke trust o Punishable by death for the man, the woman divorced and prohibited from religious practices - Oikos – Grk., household, family; basic unit of society – foundation of polis o Xenophon’s Oikonomikos – instructions on ruling oikos o Includes nuclear family, extended family and slaves o Also the basic agricultural unit of society – farms attached to oikos - Pallake – Grk., concubine, prostitute o Slaves, accepted part of polis society – “for the body’s daily needs” (Demosthenes) o Can live with a man without a dowry, but because of that, considered an unofficial union o Pallake children are considered citizens and can inherit property if both parents are citizens - Pater familias – Roman, head of the family o Trans., father of the family, owner of the family estate o Holds legal privilege over the property of his family members and authority over them all o Power extends not only to his wife and children, his extended family, but also to clients, freedmen and slaves attached to him o Duty of raising children as future citizens of Rome, maintain moral propriety and well-being of household, perform private religious ceremonies, honour their clan and ancestral gods, participate in Roman social, political and religious life - Tutor – Roman, guardians hired to protect orphaned minors and women (e.g., widows), especially if they have property attached to them o Persons not under any authority/power and have property under their own, but because they are female or underage, require protection for the interests of those who might be their heirs o If a man with power over his wife dies, she gets to choose her own tutor – unless she has 3 children then she’s free under Augustan law - Univira – Roman ideal of a one-man woman – married only once, never again (fidelity to one man) o Ideal of a chaste and faithful woman o E.g., Lucretia (Livy) 10/30 - Choleric – Yellow bile type; fundamentally ambitious and leader-like, bad-tempered and passionate, dominating and extreme - Corpus – Roman, lit., body o Hippocratic Corpus (Corpus Hippocraticum) – collection of medical texts supposedly strongly associated to Hippocrates and his teachings (medical treatises) o Varied in content, style and age – unknown authorship - Hippocratic Oath – oath historically taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals, swearing to practice medicine ethically and honestly o Swears by the gods of medicine Apollo, Asclepius, Panacaea, etc. o Swears to help people to the best of their abilities and judgement, to uphold patient-doctor confidentiality, not to harm patients, not to help women abort, etc. - Humors (4 humour theory) – ancient theory that states the body is ruled by 4 bodily fluids or humors, and any imbalance in their makeup determines a person’s temperament and health th o Widely believed until the 19 c. o All treatments until then based on this theory, e.g., blood-letting, leeching HOT C OLD DRY YELLOW BILE BLACK BILE WET BLOOD PHLEGM o Deficits and excesses of bodily fluids (i.e., the state of the bodily fluids) can be caused by vapors inhaled/absorbed by the body as well as diet and activity - Hysteria – Grk., lit., disease of the uterus o Unmanageable emotional excesses, a medical condition restricted to the female gender o Originated from the Hippocratic Corpus o Caused by the dry uterus’ movement within the body to various locations that has more moisture, with pregnancy and sex as cures prescribed (hypnosis a later treatment)  Baby will keep it anchored, sex moistens it o Virgins are prone to hysteria – uterus acts badly because of lack of sex  Marriage will allow the uterus to be taken care of by the husband o Causes bad dreams, insanity because of inability to menstruate, moodiness (afraid, fearful, murderous, suicidal) o Constant (downward) flow of blood is necessary to lessen risk of hysteria - Melancholic – black bile type; fundamentally introverted and thoughtful, considerate, highly creative and prone to depression, self-reliant and independent - Phlegmatic – Phlegm type; fundamentally relaxed and quiet, kind, tend to be content with themselves, receptive, shy and prefer stability to change, passive-aggressive, consistent, rational and curious, observant ~~~From top left, clockwise: Phlegmatic, choleric, melancholic, and sanguine - Sanguine – fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking, sociable and charismatic, boisterous, creative and daydreamers, sensitive, compassionate and romantic, talkative and shameless, optimistic and warm-hearted
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