CLA230 Review Midterm #1
Key Terms (Ch. 1)
- Attic: from Attica (countryside around Athens)
- Bronze Age:
• civilization – early Bronze Age begins in Greece with introduction of
bronze metallurgy, c. 3000-2000 B.C.
• Sumerian cities flourish in Mesopotamia, c. 2800-2340 B.C.
• Minoan civilization flourishes on Crete, c. 2500-1200 B.C.
• Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 2334-2220 B.C.
• Sumerian revival, c. 2200-2000 B.C.
• civilization – middle Bronze Age begins with the destruction of
communities across the Greek mainland, c. 2000-1600 B.C.
• old Babylon Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 1900-1550 B.C.
• civilization – late Bronze Age (or Mycenaean Age) begins, c. 1600 B.C.
• Hittite Empire rules in Anatolia, c. 1700-1200 B.C.
• Phoenician syllabic writing appears, c. 1500 B.C.
• most likely date for Trojan War, c. 1250-1200 B.C.
- Mesopotamia: “the land between rivers”, present day Iraq – Mesopotamian
kings claimed they had special relationships with the gods, and unless they
interceded, the gods would not smile upon humans
- Dark Age:
• also called Iron age – begins with the destruction of Mycenaean cities
in Greece, c. 1200-1100 B.C.
• old order of god-like kings revived in Mesopotamia and Egypt
• writing disappeared from Greece – population shrank and was isolated
from wider world
• emerged from Dark Age in around 800 B.C.
• Greek colonies settled in Asia Minor, c. 950-900 B.C.
• Greek colonies in Sicily and southern Italy, c. 800-600 B.C.
- polis: the city-state, Greek word – way of organizing cities (not kingdoms)
after Dark Age
- the Greek problem:
• fundamental conflict by a set of conditions that Greek thinkers
• what was the relationship between mortals and divine?
• Greeks saw their city-states as communities of equal, free males
(basis/origin of the concept of citizenship) – refused to believe that
gods gave any individual or narrow elite a divine right to rule
• most Greeks held the belief that gods were powerful and wise, that the
world was full of spirits and ghosts, and that a few oracles and priests
could give access to the supernatural (however, access was open to
challenge – oracles/priests could not use it to dominate others)
- demokratia: theory of equal qualification – male citizens debates and voted
on the major issues – “democracy”
- Archaic Period:
• begins with the invention of Greek alphabet, c. 800 B.C.
• The Iliad and The Odyssey, attributed to Homer, are written down, c.
• Olympic games begin, 776 B.C. • Rome, allegedly, is founded, 753 B.C.
• Hesiod’s Theogony is written down, c. 750-700 B.C.
• Homeric Hymns, c. 700-500 B.C.
• cyclic poets, c. 650 -500 B.C.
• Age of Tyrants, c. 650-500 B.C.
• Cyrus the Great of Persia, c. 590-530 B.C.
• Xenophanes, c. 570-460 B.C.
• Pindar, 518-438 B.C.
• Simonides, leter 6 to early 5 century B.C.
• alleged date of the expulsion of the Etruscan dynasty at Rome and the
foundation of the Roman Republic, 510 B.C.
• Baccylides, early 5 century B.C.
• Persians invade Aegean Greece, Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.
• Carthage invades Sicily, Greek victory at Himera, 480 B.C.
• Persians invade Aegean Greece again, destruction of Athens, Greek
victory at Salamis and Platea, 480-479 B.C.
- Classical Period:
• begins with the end of the Persian Wars, 480 B.C.
• Aeschylus, 525-456 B.C.
• Sophocles, 496-406 B.C.
• Herodotus, c. 484-420 B.C.
• Euripides, 480-406 B.C.
• Roman Twelve Tables are committed to writing, 451 B.C.
• Socrates, 469-399 B.C.
• Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.
• Thucydides, c. 460-400 B.C.
• Biblical book of Genesis reaches present form, c. 400 B.C.
• Plato, 427-437 B.C.
• Hippocrates, c. 400 B.C.
• Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.
• the Gauls sack the city of Rome, 394 or 390 B.C.
• Philip II of Macedon conquers Greece, ending local rule, 338-337 B.C.
• Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire, 336-323 B.C.
- Hellenistic Period:
• begins with the death of Alexander, 323 B.C.
• Callimachus, c. 305-240 B.C.
• Three Punic Wars are waged between Rome and Carthage, 264-241
B.C., 218-201 B.C., 146 B.C.
• Plautus, Roman playwright, dies, c. 180 B.C.
- Hellenes: Greek speakers from the ancestral home Hellas (around the
Aegean Sea), supposedly the descendants of Hellen
- Hellas: ancestral home of the Greeks (Hellenes) – lay around the Aegean
Sean, roughly the area of the modern Greek nation-state plus the west coast
of modern Turkey
- autochthonous: “born from the soil” – some Athenians claim they are
descended from the first Athenian kings that rose from the ground
- Pelasgians: “peoples of the sea”
- Ionians: people who consider themselves to be descended from Ion, a
- Dorians: people who consider themselves to be descendants from Herakles Key Terms (Ch. 2)
- Hesiod: Greek poet who lived around 700 B.C.
- Works and Days: poem by Hesiod, gives agricultural and moral advice,
addressing his brother Perses in the poem
- demography: the study of the biological aspects of human societies (size,
distribution, growth, rates of birth/death, marriage, disease)
- Thucydides: Athenian historian of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 460-400 B.C. –
described a plague that broke out in Athens in 430 B.C.
- Hippocrates: most famous Greek doctor – lived in the late 5 century B.C.,
likely came from the island of Cos in the southwest Aegean – Aegean island
of Cos: hospital and great temple to Asclepius, the god of healing, are located
- Mediterranean triad: the core of Greek diets since the 3 millennium B.C.,
consists of break, olives, and wine
Key Terms (Ch. 3)
- oikos: “house/family” – social foundation – includes slaves, close relations,
the house and its contents – basic concept consists of monogamous union of
man and woman to produce and rear legitimate children
• female poet who lived around 600 B.C. – very few female poets
• studied for information on the female viewpoint on gender – celebrates
love and marriage as a woman’s primary concern
• addressed some poems to other women, suggesting homoerotic love –
term lesbian comes from this; Sappho lived on the island of Lesbos
- misogyny: “hatred for women” – important theme in Greek culture – women
represented as an evil influence – i.e. Pandora
• Athenian aristocrat and professional soldier
• wrote about women around 400 B.C., describing a fictional
conversation between Socrates and Ischomachus
• does not represent women as a punishment to men, in the way that
• believes that the gods made men superior to women – tough, more
disciplined, more suited to outdoors – therefore the husband is in
control – however marriage is about partnership (he and wife must
• husband should educate his wife to contribute to the household in an
equal way to his contributions
- Aspasia: courtesan of Pericles – courtesan is ‘hetairai’ in Greek – bore
Pericles a child; he kissed her in full view of his fellow citizens and she
conversed with intellectuals
• “boy-love” – part of the social environment of Greek society
• homosexual behaviour between the mature sexually active ale
(erastes – “lover”) and the prepubescent passive partner (eromenos –
• part of the environment of the Greek symposium, where prepubescent
males served wine and learned about adult male behaviour • shameful to remain an eromenos after sexual maturity – however it
sometimes still happened
• “running around” – ritual for newborn children to bring them into the
community in a formal way
• holding baby in his arms, father walks around the heath, presenting
the baby to Hestia
• establishes the child’s legitimacy and future status as a citizen
• friends and neighbours bring gifts of octopus and cuttlefish
• parents hung olive branch outside the door if the child was a boy, and
a tuft of wool if it was a girl
• smear walls with black tar to turn away hostile spirits attracted to the
bodily fluids of childbirth
- Hestia: goddess of the hearth – name literally means “hearth”
Key Terms (Ch. 4)
- fertile crescent: a band of well-watered land stretching from the Persian
Gulf in the east, northwest along the Tigris-Euphrates rivers, then down the
- Neolithic Revolution: the charges that occurred (domestication of crops
and animals and shift toward sedentary village life) as settled populations
grew and hunter-gatherers had to settle down and join the farmers, move
away from them, or continue to live alongside them and perish of disease or
- Indo-European: a single family of languages that are all similar and likely
evolved from a single proto-Indo-European language – some languages in this
family are Sanskrit, Irish, Gothic, early Persian, Germanic, Greek, Armenian,
- proto-Indo-European: single ancestral language to all Indo-European
languages that existed sometime in prehistory
- secondary products revolution: the evolution of farming – keeping
animals longer, not just for food – the shift toward raising animals for traction,
milk, wool, and not just for meat
- Early Bronze Age:
• 3000-2300 B.C.
• craftsmen learned to mix copper with tin/arsenic to produce bronze
• many advances in architecture – large monumental buildings erected
• at Lerna, House of Tiles – around 2500 B.C.
- Lerna: city in Greece, close to Tiryns and Mycenae
- House of Tiles: large house at Lerna, named for the clay roof tiles –
measured 80 by 40 feet, contained storerooms, and had a second floor – clay
sealings found within the building – military tensions reflected in high walls
surrounding the House of Tiles
- Cycladic figurines: marble figurines found in the Cycladic islands – most are
- Middle Bronze Age:
• 2300-1800 B.C.
• the House of Tiles burns to the ground, along with most major sites in
mainland Greece – 2300 B.C.
• figurines disappear from graves in Cyclades – 2200 B.C. • settlement contracts to only a few sites – 2000 B.C.
• long-distance trade almost completely stops, no monumental buildings
• very simple, village-level society
• island of Crete is the only area unaffected
• one explanation is that newcomers invaded Greece around 2300 B.C. –
perhaps a second wave arrives around 2000 B.C.
• pottery, bronze, houses, graves – all different from earlier – by 2300
• violent conquest would explain fire destructions at Lerna, etc.
• upheavals in Anatolia
• evidence of a period of much drier weather – may have caused
movements in population
• some believe that it is at this point, and not 6000 B.C. that Indo-
Europeans entered Greece – as a single great invasion, instead of a
gradual travel and increase in famers and other settlers, as is usually
- Cnossus: Cretan city in which a palace is constructed in the Minoan Age –
palace build at Cnossus in around 2000 B.C.
- Minos: mythical king of Crete, after whom the Minoan Age is named – most
famous tale is about a time when Minos failed to sacrifice a special bull to
Poseidon, for which he was punished by the god, by making his wife fall in
love with the bull to create the monstrous Minotaur, which Minos hides in the
famous Labyrinth and the hero Theseus later kills
- Minoan: name of the Bronze Age Cretan civilization
- Minotaur: famous monster of Crete, born of the union between King Minos’
wife and his prized bull as punishment by Poseidon – kept in the maze-like
Labyrinth created by inventor Daedalus and later killed by Theseus – name
literally means “bull of Minos”
- primary sources: written sources of information produced by people
actually present during the period described
- secondary sources: sources in which the authors either had access to
primary or other secondary sources, or they spoke to people who were
present during the period described, but were not actually there themselves
- Second Palace Period: most well-known period of Minoan history – palace
at Cnossus was very large with a wide courtyard and an elaborate two storey
building with a grand entrance
- Linear A: writing system, made up of lines – used to record quantities by
palaces – not enough samples, and therefore not yet deciphered
- redistributive center: Minoan palaces which collect all resources produced
in the state and redistributed fairly evenly or according to status, etc.
- command economy: centralized economic system in which the palace
controls all trade and resource distribution
- thalassocracy: “kingdom of the sea”, Minoan sea power – did not fear
attack from the mainland – fairly isolated island
- Akrotiri: city on the Cycladic island of Santorini – preserved when it was
buried by volcanic ash in 1628 B.C. – “Minoan Pompeii” – gives insight into
Minoan-inspired daily life – Minoan culture expanded across the Aegean
- Mycenae: mainland town close to Tiryns, on the Peloponnese - Grave Circle A: monument built round 1650 B.C. – within the grave circle,
there are 37 vertical shafts that contained 19 skeletons and many gold
artifacts and elaborate weaponry – limestone slabs with martial themes
depicted on them, marked the individual graves – a protective circle was built
around the graves and later enclosed the whole complex within the city –
considered one of the greatest archaeological treasures ever found
- Late Bronze Age: period of the Bronze Age in which Mycenae rises to power
- Mycenaean: mainland civilization in Late Bronze Age centered around city of
Mycenae around 1600 B.C.
- Pylos: city on the coast of Messenia, seventy-five miles southwest of the
coast – around 1600 B.C. – wealthy nobility buried their dead in vaulted stone
chambers – tholos tombs
- tholos tombs: also called “beehive tombs” – burial of nobility in vaulted
stone chambers resembling underground stone beehives – found at Pylos
dating 1600 B.C. – rich Mycenaeans also created similar tombs around the
16 century B.C., only larger
- Linear B: writing system dating around 1500 B.C., derived from the Minoan
Linear A script – inscriptions on clay tablets preserved in Mycenaean site –
encoded a form of early Greek – syllabic/phonetic script
- syllabary: syllabic script where each sign stands for a syllable such as ba,
be, bi, bo, bu, etc. – therefore the distance between the writing and speech is
• singular, wanax
• name for the Mycenaean kings recorded on Linear B tablets
• suggested that their power stemmed from the fact that they may have
been perceived as being closer to the gods than the regular population
• perhaps brutal warlords – not much is known about them
• wanakes divided Greece into several kingdoms which each ruled
- megaron: rectangular building with a porch on the front and a round hearth
in the middle with paintings on the walls – design of the Mycenaean palace to
focus on megaron
- Ahhiyawa: western kingdom recorded in the state archives of the Hittite
Empire in central Anatolia – perhaps a mispronunciation of Achaea
- Achaea: one of the three names Homer records when he speaks of the
Greeks – name for the Greeks in Bronze Age
- Sea Peoples: possible invaders of Mycenaean Greece which brings about
the early Iron “Dark” Age – recorded in a propagandic record by Rameses III
in 1176 B.C., who boasts of having driven out a coalition of invaders that had
wiped out the Asian sites that are later revealed to have been destroy