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Midterm Key Terms (ch 9,11,12,13,14,15)

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Dimitri Nakassis

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Sunday, November 6/11 Introduction to Greek History D. Nakassis Key Terms Legend Bolded and underlined (whether in black or red or blue) - Likely to appear on exam Underlined - Key term from book Underlined and red - Key term from lecture Underlined and blue - Key term from lecture and book Note: I have included all keywords as they may or may not aid in other parts of the exam, not just definitions Chapter Nine Solon In 594 BC the Eupatridai chose solon, one of their own in a reaction to several issues: Class warfare, loss of territory (Salamis) and feuding aristocracy He, like Lycurgus, saw an ideal society as a band of brothers Reorganized the existing economy and society by redefining property rights All current debt-bondsmen were freed and from now on no one could own another freeborn Athenian Those sold into slavery abroad were brought back He redistributed land although we are not sure of how Probably not equally divided Probably returned land to its original owners Also defended right of childless landowner to sell, give or will land to whomever they chose Plutarch in Life of Solon said that The effect of this law was to make every mans possessions truly his own He also promoted a sounder economic base Banned export of grain so it had to be sold at home Encouraged easy to grow crops like olives and vines He clarified weights and measures Required fathers to teach sons a trade Archaeological finds reflected increased prosperity after Solon He overhauled political system, dividing citizens into 4 census classes based on wealth 1) Pentakosiomedimnoi - five-hundred-measuremen. Could hold all political offices 2) Hippeis - horsemen. Could hold all offices except treasurer 3) Zeugitai - yokemen. Could hold lower political offices but could not serve as archon or treasurer 4) Thetes - poor. Could hold no political offices but attended assembly as jurors Athenians called his reforms seisasachteia (the shaking off of burdens) Wooden boards recording his laws can still be seen on acropolis Herodotus says that solon, after drawing up his laws he travelled for 10 years and visited Amasis in Egypt and Croesus in Sardis Sunday, November 6/11 Introduction to Greek History D. Nakassis Key Terms Archon in Athens 594/3 BC Croesus was king of Lydia in 560-547 BC Amarsis was pharaoh in 570-526 BC Therefore this is not really plausible Plutarch says that the story is so good that [whether its true or not] doesnt matter Solon is seen as the founder of democracy As time goes on, athenians attribute democracy to solon Plutarch says that he established the council of 400 and theAreopagus but solon does not refer to this council in his poetry Perhaps people assumed there was a predecessor to council of 500 In 411 there was a council of 400 It was an oligarchic counter revolution Cancellation of pay for political office List of 5000 wealthiest athenians Some political killings, fear and suspicion Lycurgus Said to have created perfect laws for Sparta Made all Spartiates equal, regulated their lives and forged the ultimate fighting machine according to legend Created the spartan social organization Two kings: mostly military leaders, very restricted powers, inherited (two separate royal families) Spartiates (full citizens, 9,000 in number) Perioikoi (the dwellers aroundwho ruled themselves and had no say in the politics of sparta) Helots (serf population) They could be granted citizenship AroundAD 100 Plutarch wrote biography of Lycurgus, but even he admitted that his life and doings were widely disputed Worshipped as a god in sparta An air of supernatural Pythia told him his reforms Spartans claim he got it from crete The Great Rhetra Rhetra is word for law Plutarch says that Lycurgus got rhetra from Delphi Tyrtaeus tells story thatApollo tells them how to organize Herodotus says they didnt believe in the apollo myth but Tyrtaeus and Plutarch do Tradition says the ephors were added later Chilon (6th century BC) is attributed to their creation They were created to keep kings in check Sunday, November 6/11 Introduction to Greek History D. Nakassis Key Terms Ephors supported king, king promises to be good Tyrtaeus Mid 7th century BC The fact that it is in Tyrtaeus makes the Rhetra authentic archaic evidence King Agis IV Reigned 244-241 BC Reformer Proposed a redistribution of 4500 plots for spartiates and 15000 perioikoi Presumably lost control of Messenia, therefore he gives half of Lycurgus original numbers Sentenced to death by the Ephors There are less and less spartiates because wealth is concentrated in the hands of the few therefore, people can no longer afford to be spartiates King Cleomenes III Reigned 235-222/219 BC Married Agis IV wife, she convinces him to continue his reforms Tried to continue the reforms of Agis IV But power was in hands of ephors He murdered 4 of 5 ephors, removes the seat of the ephors except the one which he sat in Ionia Early 1st millennium greeks settled in Western Turkey to escape problems of DarkAge mainland greece Called the area Ionia Claimed to be descended from legendary Ion Ionian Enlightenment Ancient Mesopotamian learning and new greek institutions fused in 6th century BC Along Ionian coast and especially Miletus Enormous advancements in science, rational scientific criticism Miletus Ionian enlightenment principles articulated here for the first time Milesian thinkers asked why Old men gathered in towns to talk everyday in main square Thales One of the 3 major ionian thinkers identified by aristotle Probably wrote nothing Wanted to explain natural cause of things First natural philosopher Sunday, November 6/11 Introduction to Greek History D. Nakassis Key Terms Though primary element was water, perhaps channelling mesopotamian mythology Anaximander 550s May have developed his theories as criticisms of Thales Suggested that the earth hung freely in nothingness, kept in place by being equidistant from anything else in the cosmos Primary element was the Infinite (Greek apeiron) Asked how water could turn into anything (For example, its opposite: fire), as suggested by Thales Thought the infinite had no qualities except boundlessness, but within the infinite four qualities were in competition: Hot, cold, wet, dry Change comes from this competition as first one quality, then another become ascendant As opposites spin off simultaneously from the Infinite: water puts out fire, fiery sun dries up water All change is cyclical reflecting changes in the ascendancy of one quality over another Infinite is in constant motion, and therefore opposite qualities can congeal Cosmos come into being though the infinites inbuilt tendency to wiggle Relied on reason, logical inference, sprinkle of evidence Rejected earlier sties of gods making universe Focussed on how the original substance (infinite) became many and how the many things hanged into other things No agent is responsible for moving infinite because somehow motion is a quality inherent in it Offered first mechanical theory of cosmos Spacial relationships were crucial to him Produces first known map of world Anaximenes 520s Took over much ofAnaximanders thought but found other explanations for how substances turned into new substances Defines the infinite more precisely as air Through eternally ongoing process of rarefaction and condensation he theorized air condenses into liquid water and liquid water condenses into solid ice Soul is a rarefied form of air taken from the essence of the universe Pythagoras From Samos Many legends about him - hard to say what he really taught Seems to have pushed Milesian though in 3 directions: Maths, mysticism and politics Fled Samos in 531 to escape its tyrant and settled in Croton Emphasized both difference and connection between gods and mortals Human soul was a spark of divinity
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