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Midterm One

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Dimitri Nakassis

CLA230H1 – Midterm One Wednesday, October 12/ 11 Time Periods Discussed: Bronze Age (3000 – 1200 BC) Prehistory • Complex civilizations with large populations, social heirarchy, monuments, art • Literacy – elites had special access to divine powers • Centeralized power under palatial control, “command economies”* • Main civilizations: Minoan and Mycenaean * according to Morris and Powell: command economies operate on the basis of the palace controlling agriculture, who grew what and who got what. There is evidence of this but it is disputable whether this was actually the case or whether the palace just controlled it's own lands and goods. The Iron Age (Aka: The Dark Age – 1200- 800 BC) Protohistory • Bronze age centers burned to the ground for unknown reasons • Populations shrank, literacy and advanced crafts and social hierarchy disappered • International trade and communication was stunted significantly • Rich burials, opposed to temple offerings • Not a lot of evidence about what was happening in the “dark age”, this creates a problem because too much emphasis is put on the limited evidence we have, problem with chronology due to regional variation. The Archaic Period (800 – 500 BC) Historical • Reverse of the collapse of the Iron age, populations grew, trade increased • Emigration of Greeks off the mainland into Italy, Sicily, Black Sea Coasts • Emergence of small “city-states” - equality amoung male citizens, and rejection of the ruling elites were connected to the divine, leading to the Greek Problem* • Move towards democracy, and mass importation of slaves *Greek Problem: without gods to rule and reveal the truth, human reason was the only guide to the truth Key Terms House of Tiles: Lerna (3200 – 2000 BC) • Measured 8' -40 ft, named for the clay roof tiles that covered it • Large store rooms & second floor • Hypothesized to be an administration center due to the sealings discovered there (usually used for sealing documents and storing food) • House possessed fortifications which were built after the house and appear not to be used The Palace of Knossos (apprx: 1500 BC) • Located on the Island of Crete, comprimised of hundreds of rooms, storage units and covered several acres • Seemingly centeralized system, meant for trade and administrative services, agricultural storage (taxation system) • Record keeping by scribes also appeared here, Cretan hieroglyphs and Linear B used Linear A Writing (2000 BC) • Administrative language used at palaces, used to run complex bureaucracies • Writing still has yet to be deciphered Linear B Writing • Used for recording Mycenaean Greek and was founded on the island of Crete, temporary records scratched onto damp clay, which were then preserved due to the fires in 1200 BC • Consisted of 89 Syllograms (names, verbs etc) and 100 Logograms (used for commodities, and Numerals • Purely administrative/economic records for the palace, from temple offerings, to inventory of livestock and food, taxation, land holding, and craft production • Tablets are of importance because showed the complex social hierarchy that was in place at the palace as well as the advancement of the society and culture, everyone owed obligations to their superiors Protopalatial Palaces (1900 – 1700) 1. Phaistos: Left wing collapsed in, then filled and built upon again. Luxury objects, monuments, storage rooms, sealings, and works of art all appeared here. Shows that Phaistos had a palatial function. 2. Akrotiri 1628 BC: Greek (minoan) Pompeii – Volcanic eruption and tsunami. Ash from eruption left the remains well-preserved and undisturbed, giving it incredible archeological significance. Individuals were forced to leave their belongings behind. • Minonanization (influence eminating from Crete) founded largely on these sites, cultural blending between the Cretians and Minoans are apparent from wall paintings, pottery and other artifacts found at these sites. Meaning there was obviously contact and trade occuring between these two societies. Moses Finely Paul Halstead • Near Eastern economies were • Palaces had control only over dominated by large palaces/ resources and people in the temples/ complexes owned the palatial territory, outside of that land, monopolized production, the land was owned by damos trade and public life (industrial (not kings). The palace records production). Palace redistrabutes things which are symbolically
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