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Midterm Two Terms

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Dimitri Nakassis

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CLA230H1 Week Two (Week 6 - 8) Wednesday, November 09/ 2011 Causes of Colonization Ÿ Land-hunger (increasing population, famine, political disputes, inheritance issues) Ÿ Trade Ÿ Location of new resources Cyrene (631 BC) Ÿ Greek Colony in Libya - founded by a group of immigrants from the island of Thera in the Aegean Ÿ Battus: leader, became the first king, founded dynasty Battiads (631-440 BC: eight generations) Ÿ Economically prosperous: coins credited to the Lydians: King Croesus Ÿ Mix between Silver and Gold coinage Ÿ Port: Apollonia King Arkesilas II of Cyrene Ÿ Known as ‘the oppressor, the harsh, the severe’ Ÿ Dynasty began to decline due to his reign, became more of a tyrant then a king Ÿ Befriended Learchus who had intentions of stealing the throne, whose plots were later foiled and he was sent into exile and settles in Barca Ÿ Learchus defeats Arkesilas in battle, and kills him with a poisonous drink Sources 1. Pindar: two victory poems for King Arkesilas in chariot victory at Delphi 2. Herodotus: foundation story told by people of Cyrene and Thera 3. 4 c. Inscriptions from Cyrene rd 4. Fragment of 3 BC historian Herodotus: Accounts of the Colonization of Libya Therans Cyreneans Ÿ King Grinnas consulted the Ÿ Pythia commands colony to Oracle at Delphi which ordered settle in Libya him to found new Libyan colony Ÿ No rain in Thera for the next Ÿ Battus embarks on the seven years expedition and fails, then attempts to return to Thera Ÿ Therans send one of two Ÿ Creates settlement on the brothers: Battus island of Platea Ÿ Battus becomes the expedition Ÿ Platea settlement a failure, leader and the King of the new Cyreneans invite the settlers Colony Cyrene to stay Comparison of the Stories Similarities Differences Ÿ Consultation with Delphi Ÿ Therans: emphasis on the role Ÿ Battus as leader of colonial of the city in the colonization foundation Ÿ Cyreneans: emphasis on the Ÿ First settlement at Platea role of Battus in the founding of Cyrene Pythia Ÿ Commonly found at the Oracle of Delphi Ÿ Priestess at the temple of Apollo: known for her prophecies Ÿ Possibility of gas rising from geological chasm being responsible for prophecies 4 c. Inscriptions from Cyrene Ÿ Therans given citizenship of Cyrene in accordance with the rules set down in original colonization of Cyrene Ÿ Apollo told Battus and Therans to colonize Libya Ÿ If the colony was successful their kinsman could join later: if not they must return to Thera Ÿ Curse is placed on those who do not abide by agreement Menekles of Barke Ÿ North African Writer Ÿ Claimed citizens of Thera fell into civil strife Ÿ Battus as one of the faction leaders was driven from the city and left the country Ÿ Oracle advised Battus to establish a colony elsewhere instead of pursuing internal strife in Thera Battle of Marathon (490 BC) Ÿ Followed the Ionian revolt, after the burning of Sardis Ÿ Darius, empower of Persia, seeking revenge on the Athenians and Eritrians for aiding the Ionians Ÿ 492: Darius sent his son in law; Mardonius with a fleet to punish Athens and Eretria. Though the fleet met a storm and lost 300 ships and 20,000 men Ÿ Athenians and Spartans executed Darius’ heralds when they came to demanding for Earth and Water Ÿ 490: Darius sent a force of 30,000 men with Hippias the son of Athenian ex-tyrant Pisistratus to destroy Athens and reinstate Hippias as the King Ÿ Darius plunders and burns Naxos and Eretria (whom the Athenians sent a troop of 4000 hoplites to protect, and who were turned away because Eretria had fallen into turmoil and political upheaval) Ÿ Miltiades , and Athenian General, led a force of 9000 hoplites to Marathon where they were joined by a group of 1000 Hoplites from Platea Ÿ The Persians and Greek forces met at Marathon in a face-off that lasted one week (6,400 Persians killed, 192 Athenians) Ÿ Pheidippedes sent to Sparta for help, but Spartans were unable to come due to their laws and were forces to wait until the next full moon Ÿ Athenians raced the Persian fleet back to Athens on foot, preventing the sack of the city Ÿ Aristophanes: “Nothing is feared more then the Attica Wasp” Ÿ Present Day: Marathon- Tomb of the heroized Athenian War Dead Athenian Treasury at Delphi Ÿ Dedicated to Apollo from the Medes - first fruits of the battle of Marathon (490 BC) Herodotus as a Source Issues on account of the Battle of Marathon: 5. Terrain suited to Cavalry: the Greeks did not have a Cavalry unit, but instead were subjected to constant raids made by Persian Cavalry 6. Athenians / Plateans charge 1480 m to meet the Persians in battle: would be difficult to hold formation and run such a distance 7. Casualties: 6,400 Persians to 192 Athenians seems like and exaggerated account of the casualties suffered by the Persians The Battle Of Mantineia Ÿ Mantineia: ancient Greek city in Arcadia Ÿ Formed alliance with Argos, Elis, Athens against Sparta Ÿ Battle was “lost” to the Spartans under the command of King Agis Ÿ Lack of discipline and strategy during the battle, more of a stalemate with each side winning in some areas while losing in others Ÿ Mantineia refused to form and alliance with Sparta even after the battle Events leading to the Persian Wars Darius and Xerxes Ÿ Egyptian revolt in 486 BC against Persians Ÿ Darius dies in the late 486/5 BC Ÿ Xerxes assumes the throne and subdues Egyptians Ÿ Mardonius: Cousin of Xerxes becomes great General in the Persian army Development of Athenian Navy and Hellenic League Ÿ Athens struck silver in Laurion (483/2 BC) which Themistocles convinces them to spend on developing the Athenian navy to fight against Aegina Ÿ Hellenic League is formed soon after in response to the growing threat of Persia: alliance between Sparta, Athens, Plataea, Thespiae, and Corinth Battle of Artemisium Ÿ 333 Athenian ships vs. 500 Persian ships Ÿ Persians attempted to encircle Greek fleet Ÿ Xerxes fleet unsuccessful due to size, his ships became entangled and the Battle was a draw Ÿ Athenian fleet retreated to Salamis with half of their ships disabled Battle of Salamis Ÿ Xerxes fooled by Themistocles into believing that the Athenians were going to attempt to escape from the city, the Persian fleet pursued them into the straights Ÿ Athenian fleet rushed the larger Persian fleet within the narrows causing them to break formation and crash into each other Ÿ Persian soldiers were unable to swim and therefore many drowned, 200 Persian ships were lost Ÿ Xerxes left with fleet, leaving Mardonius with a army of 300,000 men, whom the Greek generals decided not to pursue Ÿ Xerxes offers terms to Athenians who refuse resulting in Mardonius sacking Athens in the summer of 479 Ÿ Oracle tells Athenians to “trust the wooden walls” which Themistocles takes as a reference to the Athenian Navy Battle of Plataea (479 BC) Ÿ Spartans after a long deliberation marched North to assist the Athenians in defeating the Persians Ÿ Pausanius led the Spartan troops Ÿ Mardonius heard the news of Spartans arriving and fell back to Boeotia, while the Athenians occupied the foothills near Plataea in order to reduce impact of the Persian cavalry Ÿ Both Persians and Greeks refused to attack based on the omen that “those who defend shall be victorious, those who attack shall lose” Ÿ Spartans and Athenian troops became separated when resources became low and Mardonius too this as a time to attack Ÿ Persians lacked the equipment and training that the Greeks had and attacked in small numbers being killed by the phalanx Ÿ Mardonius and his elite cavalry and killed and Persians flee to camp where they are pursued and killed Ÿ Allied forces then march on Thebes Ÿ Only 43000 Persians survived of the 300,000 who stayed behind, while only 159 Greek casualties Ÿ Bronze Serpent Column commemorates those who fought in this battle Hellenic Identity Ÿ Hornblower: “Persia gave the Greeks their identity, or the means to recognize it.” Ÿ Hellenikon: common blood, common tongue, common cult places, sacrifices and similar customs” (Herodotus, what unites the Hellenes) Hippocrates: Airs, Waters, Places Ÿ Medicinal text taking into consideration of seasons changing and the cold/ warm wind Ÿ Asia: everything is larger and more beautiful, the inhabitants are milder, more gentle and affectionate Ÿ Cause: Temperature of the seasons, lies in the middle of the rising sun therefore not too hot or not too cold Ÿ Men from Asia are weak in their desires for women due to their constant horseback riding and soft, co
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