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PSY240 All Lecture Notes.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Abnormal Psychology Lecture 1 NotesFirst means to identify abnormal behaviours isStatistical CriteriaAbnormal behaviour that deviates from statistical normsSecond meansThrough Cultural NormsThe recognition that what may be abnormal in one environment may not be in another eg across different culturesThird wayDevelopmental NormAt particular ages stages you are expected to behave a certain way milestones And the further you get away from acting a certain way during these stages the more likely u are to be considered psychopathological But typically fast development is thought of positively while slow development is considered negativeFourth wayMethod of Frequency Intensity and Duration How often how bad and for how long Behaviours that have high or low aka any abnormal frequency intensity andor durationProblem with statistical normsIt disregards deviant behaviours that are favourableeg high IQ Something considered abnormal in just about every society delusions and hallucinations They are considered psychopathological Cultural norms are often situational defined eg public nudityAbnormal Psychology Lecture 2 NotesEtiological models of abnormal behaviourThe study of the causes of abnormal behaviour look up better definitiona Medicaldisease modelsb Environmental modelsgenetic modelssociocultural modelsbiochemical modelslearning modelsneurophysiologic modelshumanistic modelspsychoanalytical modelMedicaldisease ModelsGenetic Model Schizophrenia and depression have genetic component to these Eg If parents or grandparents have these its highly likely that they could tooYou cannot treat schizophrenia with psychotherapy Its a brain disorder genetic So only drugs can help with it Concordance rate of schizophrenia is 50Stress can make it so genetic dispositions more likely to happen eg schizophrenia etcDepression has a concordance rate of 80 even though its not clearly genetically Response equally to drugs and psychotherapy Biochemical Model Drugs that are most effective in treating depression effect serotonin they have too little of it Schizophrenia is when they have too much dopeamineNeurophysiologic Model StuffPsychoanalytical Model Freuds model of abnormal behaviour Proposed through psychoanalysis that psychopathology developed internally Came from intrapsychic conflict Environmental ModelsSociocultural Model Most widely prescribed to Social determinantsstressors Significant Stressors Death in the family loosing job divorce loosing a significant relationship starting a significant relationshipMore stress you have the more likely you are to be depressedLearning Model Conditioning models eg Pavlov Environmental moulds who we are from what we learn from that environment Views abnormal behaviour as determined by learning Therapy would be relearningHumanistic Model Touchyfeely psychology This model stresses the individuals reaction to themselves and to the external world Interested in exploring the persons interaction with itself an what is around it AssessmentFirst stage of assessment is a Referral In referral basic information is given duration onset and medical status Giving a general orientation of the problems at handClinical Methods clinical observationthe interview 1psychological tests 2behavioural observation assessments 3 Observation 2 warnings when collecting information by observation st1 Looking at behaviour at a SPECIFIC time and a SPECIFIC space that the individual is NOT used to and unfamiliar to nd2 Observer bias especially when given a referral suggesting a certain disorder You may look for things to confirm that suggestion Observational data gathered through 5 categories of patients behaviour1 General appearance and attire2 Emotional gestures facial expressions body language3 Gross and fine motor acts4 The quality of the patients relationships5 Verbalizations not just content but quality and structure of verbalizationThe Interview Most common form of assessment Questions are asked and responses are expected Questions asked would be based on the referral Interviews are pretty exhaustiveAsk a lot about family and individual history Ask a lot of questions about the presenting problems very specific questions askedThe interview serves to establish a good repport establishment of a comfortable interaction with eachother with the patient Two types of interviews Structured interview and unstructured interviewStructured Interview Very specific questions are asked High degree of reliability Theyare very bad though at establishing a repport with the patientsUnstructured Interview Must record the important information while ignoring theunimportant information Monitor the patients cooperativenessand truthfulness at all times of the interview Psychological Tests Exclusive domain of psychologists They are carefully analyzed using standardized testing Looking for norms and comparing responses to the norms They are devised to get the data not readily gather from the interview eg fantasys aspects of memories perceptions and achievementsTwo types of test cognitive intelligence test and personality tests
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