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Midterm Key Terms (ch 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24)

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Dimitri Nakassis

LegendBolded and underlined whether in black or red or blueLikely to appear on examUnderlinedKey term from bookUnderlined and redKey term from lectureUnderlined and blueKey term from lecture and bookNote I have included all keywords as they may or may not aid in other parts of the exam not just definitionsNote that some key terms have not been included as they are most likely not to be on the testChapter 24The Coming of Rome 22020 BCRepublicRome had kings until aristocratic conspirators overthrew them in 509 BC establishing a RepublicLatin res publica public affairSenateBody of old menViolently opposed to monarchy300 aristocrats serving for life and a series of assemblies made key decisionsConsulsEach year the senate elected two senators as consulsDeliberatorsOversaw war finance and lawReplacing the consuls every year made it hard to form longterm policy but the romans were determined to avoid a return to monarchTriumphOne of the greatest spectacles of the ancient worldIf a victorious general killed more than 5000 in battle the senate might vote him a triumphal parade through home in which he displayed his plunder and captivesVictorious general was allowed to ride in a chariot drawn by white horses as Th Gods were imagined to doAccording to one source a slave would stand behind him whispering in his ear Remember you are a mortalThe symbolism blurred the boundaries between great warriors and deities but once the parade was over the normal boundaries were reaffirmedGenerals could be god for a day but no moreHiero IICunning tyrant of SyracuseReigned from 265216 BCJoined the Roman side early onCarthage and Syracuse had been fighting each other to an exhausting standstill for 150 years but Rome now committed all the wealth and manpower of Italy to the strugglePublicaniSyracuse tax collectorsEfficient and relentlessHannibalCarthaginian generalSemitic for mercy of BaalLearned from the First Punic War that manpower and money were decisiveIf he cut off Rome from her allies he could starve her of both these resources and defeat herIn 218 BC he boldly led an army including elephants over the Alps invading Italy from the northRomans were taken by surprise and by 216 BC Hannibal had won three shattering victories Most of Italy and Sicily defected to his side as he predictedIn 125 BC Syracuse and Philip V of Macedon joined HannibalThe city of Rome was too big for Hannibal to attack head on and the Romans could not defeat him in open battleRomans wore him out with endless marching around italyDefeated by Scipio the only time Hannibal had been defeated on the battlefieldMarcellusLed a threeyear siege against SyracuseOpenly admired Greek cultureUpset when he learned that his soldiers had killed ArchimedesLooted Syracuse and carried great artworks off to RomeScipio236184 BCMercilessly killed the enemies of RomeBy 205 he had driven Carthage out of SpainCarried the war to Africa and in 202 BC defeated Hannibal who had returned from Italy to defend CarthageThis was the only time Hannibal had been defeated on the battlefieldFor his victories Scipio was nicknamed Africanus The conquerer of AfricaCato234149 BCConservative leaderConservatives believed that rhetoric would infect the ruling class with Greek weakness and he viewed Greek culture in contemptVowed that if Romans became infected with Greek literature they would lose their empireInsisted that Greek literature is only worth a glance the Greeks are a wicked and stubborn race their literature will ruin Rome their doctors will bring Rome to her knees The Greeks have sworn to ill all Barbarians with their medicine and they include Romans among the BarbariansFought a losing battleIn order to compete against trained orators in Senate debates Cato needed to speak effectively himself in fact he had studied Greek literature closely in his youth memorizing Thucydides and Demosthenes to improve his powers of persuasion The only way for Romans Senators to fight Greek culture was to act more Greek than its championsMarius15786 BCObscure soldier who persuaded the Roman assemblies to adopt a different solution to the manpower crisis simply abolish property qualifications for military serviceIncreased the pool of recruits and expanded the army quicklyAsked the Senate to send him with an army against Mithridates but the Senate feared Mithridates wealth and refusedMithridatesIn 88 BC this nonGreek ruler of the kingdom of Pontus hit Rome suddenly and hardHad ruled Pontus for 30 years sometimes as Romes ally and sometimes resisting her Seeing Rome distracted by her struggles in Italy and the Greeks anger toward the Romans he built up a powerful army and overran Bithynia one of Romes client kingdoms in AnatoliaDefeated two Roman armies sent against him then captured tortured and executed a Roman generalThe war then turned into ethnic cleansing Mithridates told the Greeks he would rid the world of the Italian raceWrote in secret to all Satraps and the magistrates in the Greek cities in Asia Minor about ethnic cleansing on an appointed dayHe swore to punish those who buried the dead or concealed the livingTo the slaves that killed their masters he offered freedom to debtors who killed their creditors he offered remission of half the debtSources say the rebels massacred 80000 but the true number is unknownTook so much plunder that he could afford to cancel all taxes on the bankrupt Greeks for five yearsWhen Roman agents closed in on him he now an old man tried poison first but had built up an immunity to it over the yearsHe then ordered on of this own soldiers to stab him to deathSulla13878 BC
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