Cumulative Study Guide

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA230H1
Professor
Dimitri Nakassis
Semester
Fall

Description
Cumulative Key TermsFirst Test MaterialHerodotusLived around 480s420s BCGreek man living in HalicarnassusHis book Histories which may not be very accurate does tell us a lot about Greek life at the timeHe wrote to record great human deeds so that they may not be forgottenThere was an emphasis on the male spheres of action political and military the Persian War especiallyHe was interested in Greeks as well as nonGreeksHe is later criticized for thisHe is interested in causes of events and why things happened the way that they didHe was born around the time of the Persian War and therefore not an eyewitness to most of what he writes onHe gathered different stories and stitched them togetheran oral historyA lot of bias in oral history so he had to sort through different versionsHe is useful to modern historians because he will tell multiple versions of the same eventSometimes tells us which he believes to be correct he would apply logic to determine whether the account was plausible or notAlong with history he is interested in culture geography geology the workings of the gods and the fantasticHe is named the father of historyGreek ProblemMost Greeks thought that the gods were powerful and wise and that only a few oracles and priests had access to themThis access was open to challenge however and could not be used to dominate othersGreece doesnt have one religious authority well organized priesthood to create orthodoxy not spiritual leaders or central sacred booksThese conditions created a fundamental conflict called the Greek ProblemA set of conditions with which Greek thinkers struggledWithout gods to rule and reveal the truth it was concluded that human reason was the only guide to truthIf no king had special access to the truth then all men must be roughly equally qualified to discuss it Therefore the only source of good decisions must be the whole male communityOther Greeks drew different conclusions from Greek problemsElites should rule could be trained on behalf of whole community to skillfully reasonThis diversity produced two resultsConstant intercity warfare as different poleis promoted own visionsThinkers needed to explain how the universe worked independent of divine whim and why there was so much varietyTheir questions initiated Greek science and philosophyPederastyCumulative Key TermsMeans boyloveGrew out of social environment of symposiumPrepubescent boys served wine and learned about adult male behaviorMature male was the sexually active parter called erastes loverPrepubescent passive partner eromenos received erect penis between his thighsThis was called intercrural intercourseMany erastes introduced his younger eromenos to the ways of polite society establishing social contacts for help later in lifeIf eromenos were wealthy talented from a famous family or particularly handsome he would reflect honor onto his erastesSome Greek writers notably Plato wrote that this relationship should be chasteHence platonic loveThe focus should be on intellectual developmentOthers thought it should be explicitly sexual but come to an end when the eromenos reached puberty and the first traces of a beard appeared Spartan pederasty was expected of all males as a form of moral training and was closely tiredwith military training in a platonic wayLinear BPalaces on Greek mainland by 1500 BC used a writing system called Linear BDerived from Minoan Linear ABritish architect Michael Ventris deciphered it in 1952Not a professional just enjoyed code breakingVentris showed that it encoded an early form of GreekThree types of signs 89 signs called syllabograms used to write names words verbs etc100 Logograms used to indicate commoditiesNumerals decimal systemEach sign stands for a syllable so that the distance between what someone says vs writing can be greatMostly tablets which record names as a part of a system of economic accounting Purely palatial no private or religious textsGives us incite into how the palaces were runNo literature of any kind survivesTemporary documents made on clayWe only have them because the fires burnt the palaces and baked the clayUsually they were only kept around for a month to yearLefkandi Heroon1000950 BCMeans heros graveThis house is on a hill by the seaThatched roof long and narrowEvidence of advanced technologyNo one though anything like this was being built in Greece in Iron AgeTwo shafts cut into floor of house with evidence of monumental kraters on topCumulative Key TermsFemale had gold jewelry faience beads including a 1000 year old heirloom clothing pins iron knife with ivory handleUnbelievably wealthy for the periodMale was cremated remains warped in linen robe and remains placed in bronze amphora enclosed in bronze bowel whet stone iron sword spear head razorAmphora imported from Cyprus 100200 years old with cast rim of archers and hunting animalsAt some point after burials the house was purposely dismantled and filled with earth to make a moundEvidence of a lot of labourBuilt as a house and lived in or built as a funerary structurePossibly built as a house of the chief and when he and wife died they made it their graveOr perhaps an important person died and this structure was built for funerary purposes and then destroyedThe shafts were not dug through the floor which implies that the shafts were dug before the buildingOn the island of EuboeaNumbered no more than 10002000 peopleDactylic HexameterDactylic means fingerlike because the finger has one long joint and two short jointsHexameter means having six divisionsEvery sixth unit which ends in a line is always longlongMost are epithets and have nothing to do with the behavior just the lineEx Odysseus of the many wilesThese formulae were part of the clue that this was oral poetryWritten poetry wouldnt be so repetitive Shame CultureHeroic societies are generally shame culturesShame comes from falling short of an ideal pattern of social conductIf your companions think ill of you then you have lost faceIf the loss is serious enough you may feel that your life has lost meaningSanctions of shame are external physical tangible material Ex medals trophies etcCalled geras prizeHonor is quantifiableMust take from others by defeating them in athletic competitors and battle etcIliad begins with Agamemnon taking a prize from Achilles and therefore his honor in a public setting in front of the entire army this is the worst thing that could happen to achillesXeniaguest friendship or the treatment of a strangerIn proper Greek society of Homers day one was obliged to receive a wandering stranger of the proper social class with courtesy and foodThese are formal and important relationships
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