In-Class Essay - Outline

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

In-Class Essay – Review Question 1: What were the key stages in Rome’s evolution from a village into an empire? - village to republic to empire - traditional date of foundation of Rome (753 B.C. ) as starting point – Romulus and Remus story - traditional date for the founding of the Roman republic (509 B.C.) - rivalries: • Romulus vs. Remus • Marius vs. Sulla • Pompey vs. Caesar • Augustus vs. Antony - two possibilities for end of republic – use traditional time of Augustus, or end of republic with Marius - senatorial to non-senatorial to absolute power/militarism - senatorial • Elder Cato ideal • campaign as competition • games – use of the people • patrician names • optimates vs. populares • pre-Gracchi tribunes - non-senatorial • tribunate • mob • plebeian council • tribune – Gracchi exploitation (segue) - absolute power/absolute militarism • standing armies • marches on Rome - village to senatorial/non-senatorial republic to empire/absolute power - village/senatorial • office infighting • praetor competition • cursus honorum • two factions – optimates vs. populares • senators – magistracies • family faction • consul vs. consul • use of games and campaigns to win favour of people - senatorial/non-senatorial republic • tribunes – Gracchi brothers • plebeian council • mobs • increase in competition = change • tribune for land reform – always killed • senatorial purging – proscriptions • tribunate and Gracchi – violence: mobs, bodyguards, proscriptions - absolute militarism/end of Republic • standing armies • marches on Rome – Marius/Sulla; Caesar/Pompey • armies • purges • escalation from low scale violence to civil war • re-systemization and redistribution of power – end to conflict with Augustus Question 2: What factors led to the collapse of the Roman Republic? - competition – people, culture - senate vs. people vs. army – means of power - senate • optimates vs. populares • first and second triumvirates – “oligarchy” • infighting • power transfer from senate to three men • control of government - people • tribunate • Gracchi brothers • Caesar • tribune of the plebs – using the people - army • mob violence, gangs • Marius and Sulla • Caesar • marches on Rome • proscriptions • power enforced by standing armies - methods of power – old-style senate to power of the people to standing armies/militarism - old-style senate • Cato the elder – advice to nephew • idea of honour above all • struggle of the orders – somewhat of a se
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