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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria Wohl

CLA232 STUDY NOTES Basic History and Background Information First stages of inhabitance Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations 1. Mycenaean period 1600-1200BCE Poleis- Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Athens, Thebes, Orchomenos, and Folksier Politics- ruled by monarchies, the King was the top most level of society; all else either worked for the King or were self-employed Polis- ancient Greek city-state, composed of both rural and urban areas (pl. poleis) Linear B- the first surviving script for writing Greek which died out after the Mycenaean collapse, derived from Linear A which was the Minoan language preceding the Mycenaean period 2. Dark Ages 1200-800BCE -the period between the fall of the Mycenean civilizations and the readoption of writing -after the Trojan Wars, Greecewas weak and was taken over by a tribe called the Dorians 3. Archaic Period 750-500BCE -city states evolved and adopted their own unique cultures (all Greek city-states began as monarchies) -they were ruled by a Basileus a hereditary King but monarchies were later overthrown with several other political alternatives 4. Classical Period 490-323BCE -long war led to demise of Athens, then Sparta and Macedonia emerged as major Greek power -marked flourish of democracy, art, culture and politics Important Architecture Acropolis- it is the raised, fortified citadel in a polis -the Athenian acropolis is most famous, dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, Athena -would hold many important festivals and events Parthenon- work began on this temple in 447BCE on the acropolis and was dedicated to Athena Important Terminology Meden Agan- nothing in excess Sophrosune- virtue, morality, personal limits At - the tragic heros demise due to hubris Gnothi Seauton- know thyself Hubris- pride, haughtiness and arrogance Physis- nature, to be born Nomos- culture, customs and laws Xenia- concept of hospitality, generosity and courtesy to guests Andreia- manly courage, warriors virtue and strength Kakos- bad on the inside, a counterfeit Famous People Major Thinkers- Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Hippocrates- father of modern medicine Drama Writers- Sophocles, Aeschylus and Euripedes Heinrich Schliemann -famous archaeologist who focused his work in Troy and Mycenae shaft graves with skeletons and royal gold including the mask of Agamemnon at Mycenae Mythology Background Information Anthropomorphism- gods imagined physically in the shape of mortals Panhellenism- spanning across all of Greece, uniting as one e.g Olympics Polytheism- having many gods, Zeus ruling the communal existence in Olympus -power and death separate the gods from the mortals although they have similar desires, feelings etc Creation Story Everything is created from these four elements: Chaos- chasm, empty disorder Gaia- ge, earth Tartara- underworld Eros- love and desire FIRST GENERATION -Ouranos was the first ruler of the universe and with Gaia (earth) they produced the Titans -Kronos, the youngest of 12 titans castrates Ouranos and Aphrodite is born from his genitals SECOND GENERATION Kronos and Rhea produced the twelve Olympians -Kronos hated his children and would swallow them when born -Rhea disguises a rock as her son and forces Kronos to eat it while Zeus, her real son, survives Ompholos- the boulder in Delphi representing the rock that was used to trick Kronos THIRD GENERATION Titanomachy- the twelve Olympians defeat the titans -bloody violence eventually leads to the peaceful rule of Zeus The Twelve Olympians Zeus- leader of the gods Hera- Zeus sister and wife, goddess of marriage Poseidon- Zeus brother, god of the sea Hades- Zeus brother, god of the underworld Demeter- Zeus sister, goddess of the harvest Aphrodite- born from Ouranos severed genitals, goddess of love Ares- son of Zeus and Hera, god of war Hephaistos- Heras alone son, god of metalwork Athena- Zeus alone daughter, goddess of craft, war, cities Apollo- Zeus son by the goddess Leto, god of music, arts, prophecy Artemis- Zeus daughter by the goddess Leto, goddess of the hunt Hermes- Zeus son by the goddess Maia, god of messengers and travelers Dionysus- Zeus son by the human Semele, god of wine and theatre Ponos- the god of hard labor and toil, represented the work men did
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