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Key Terms for Midterm #1

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Rob Mc Cutcheon

Key Terms for Midterm #1 Romulus  Foundation Myth o Sons of Rhea Silva and Mars o Uncle throws them in the Tiber, found my she-wolf who suckles them, later raised by shepherds o They kill their uncle, and return their grandfather to the throne o Romulus goes on to kill his brother and found Rome  Foundation myth can be seen as an analogy for the struggle of orders – Patricians (Remus) vs. Plebeians (Romulus)  First King of Rome  He was popular because he acted in favour of the Plebs – later kings became more tyrannical  Death believed to be one of two things: o Apotheosis o Murdered by patricians  His life highlights the internal strife, external conflict, and constant war-state that is Rome  Remus may have been a late addition – why include the fratricide? o Emphasized theme of civil strife so prevalent in Roman history Patricians  all those who had access to powerful political and religious offices  may have been more wealthy than plebs, but it was not a deciding factor  patres = father  may have descended from the original rulers, but their origin is unclear  came from powerful, non-royal families who took advantage of the power gaps that were left following the abolishment of the kings  often associated with the Palatine hill Plebeians  the freeborn Roman citizens that did not have access to political and religious offices  Secession of the Plebs in 494BCE – refused to go to war and occupied the Aventine hill until the Patricians gave in and allowed them access to political office  Not economic in nature: there may have been some very wealthy plebs  Certain political positions only available to the plebs: Tribune of the Plebs and certain aediles  Tribune of the Plebs: o Charged with the defense of the persons and property of the plebs o Sacrosantitas o Power to veto any magistrate or political body except for the dictator o Could summon the assembly of the plebs and enforce its resolutions King Phyrrus of Epirus  280BCE – the Romans made a move to take over Southern Italy which was under the control of the Greeks  Greeks appealed to their allies to defend them  King Phyrrus sent troops and won many battles, but ultimately lost the war  Rome had a seemingly unending supply or resources and manpower from the colonies Punic Wars  Rome fought 3 wars with the N. African city of Carthage over the exploitation of Sicily  First Punic War (264 – 241 BCE) o Lashed together ships during a naval battle and effectively turned it into a land battle o Following this war, Carthage entered into a period of civil war during which the Romans conquered Sardinia and Corsica  Second Punic War (218 - 201 BCE) o Hannibal led the Carthaginians in a fight with Rome over control of Spain o Hannibal attacked directly in Rome with war elephants, not the Roman troops in Spain which was expected o Rome was victorious when it attacked Carthage directly, forcing the Carthaginians to call Hannibal back o Provinces of Rome were established in Spain and the Romans began to move into Greece  Third Punic War (149 – 146 BCE) o Carthage was in shambles following the second war, but Rome still wanted to destroy it o The Romans sacked and razed Carthage, sowing salt into the earth so nothing new could grow there  Believed that the ‘moral decline’ of Rome started following these wars o The resources they had coming in made them weak and decadent like the Greeks The Gracchi  Two politically powerful plebeian brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, who tried to find a solution for the land distribution problems in Rome  Confiscated land should be farmed by peasants, not the slaves of the rich – peasants could also have a source of income  Both were killed – Tiberius was beaten to death by senators, Gaius committed suicide  They went against mos maiorum – tradition was for the elites to be in possession of land and wealth Octavian/Augustus  After defeating Mark Antony in 31BC, Octavian becomes sole ruler of Roman world  Takes the name, Augustus after the first Augustan settlement (27 BC)  He institutes a series of reforms to the political constitution of Rome  Instigates many important social and cultural changes to Rome society  These reforms create a long lasting political system and results in the pax Romana (Roman peace)  Augustan Laws on Marriage o Represents the largest legal change in marriage o Augustus thought there was something wrong with the elite who weren’t getting married and having children o Institutes three laws concerning marriage: 1. Lex Julia in 18 BC 2. Lex Lulia de Adulteriss Coercendis in 17 BC 3. Lex Papia Poppaea in 9 CE o Features: 1. Failure to marry and procreate was punished with taxes and lessening of inheritance rights 2. Restrictions on who could marry who, particularly for senators 3. Adultery becomes a crime 4. Concubinage becomes legally recognized  Augustan Settlements: o First Settlement (27 BC)  Octavian received pro-consular command in several provinces (which contained most of the legions), while the senate took control of the rest of the provinces  Octavian continued to serve yearly as consul (something that was unheard of before)  Given the honorific title, Augustus (illustrious one) and princeps (first among equals)  New political situation called the “principate” – form of government would endure (with minor changes) o Second Settlements (23 BC)  Augustus gives up yearly consulship  Receives the power of the tribune of the plebs and the power of a censor in its place  He receives imperium maius (greater power); he can override any provincial governor  Pater patriae (father of the nation): o Augustus assumes role as the patronus and paterfamilias of the entire state o Received title of pater patriae in 2 BC o Examples of this phenomenon:  The senate would come to his house on the Palatine for the salutatio  Cult of Vesta was moved to his house in 12 BC o Augustus becomes ‘super patron’ of the people  Res Gestae of Augustus o Inscription detailing the life and deeds of Augustus (includes: Offices held, games put on, building construction, how much money he gave to the country, civil wars he stopped etc.) o Inscribed in bronze and put in front of Augustus’ mausoleum - copies in stone all over the empire o Based on the genre of elogiae – presents facts and is deliberately not artistic o Offers firsthand view of Augustan ideology and construction of history o Continually incorporates his own power into traditionalism so his reign doesn’t represent a stark break from the republican period o Doesn’t talk about being emperor, but rather how he turned down dictatorship Livy  59BCE – 17CE  Wrote the Ab Urbe Condita – a history of Rome from its earliest point until his day  Was not an accurate historian – would synthesize all the stories about history into one o Also a notoriously bad translator  Roman psyche – what it meant to be Roman (issues/anxieties prevalent among Romans)  Writes about the importance of exemplum – look back on the past to know what to avoid/copy in the future Cicero  Marcus Tullius Cicero was an important Roman political figure  Married to Terentia from 80 – 46 BCE o She ran his estate while he was in exile  Tiro was Cicero’s slave (scribe and literary helper) until 53BCE  The letters Cicer send to these two reveals the types of relationships a husband might have with his wife and with his slave o Affection for wife vs. affection for slave is different Exemplum  Exemplary/exemplarity  Exemplum guide your actions based on the past actions of others  Exemplum can be seen in the preface of Livy – look to the past to guide the future  Together, examples that together comprise mos maiorum Mos Maiorum  ‘the customs of the ancestors’  Ancestors lived better lives than they did and therefore they must strive to be like them to return to the ‘golden age’ of man o Simple, idealistic age, free from the influence of the Greeks  Romulus as ideal king – all others after him fall short, should strive to be more like him Aeneas  One of the survivors from Troy, commanded by the gods to flee  Arrives in Latium, founds a settlement that will later go on to become Rome o Precedes the story of Romulus and Remus  Ideal of the ideal Roman – shows pietas o Looks back at older generation with respect, takes care of future ones  Written to incorporate Roman and Greek history together  Developed as a response to Greek incursions into Italy  Rome as an amalgamation of cultures, even from the very beginning  Romans played a primary role in the world from the very beginning – not secondary to Greeks Rape of the Sabine Women  No women when Rome was founded o They invited the Sabines, kidnapped their women  Civil war erupted, women stopped the fight, claiming they loved both sides  2 kings elected, one Sabine, the other Romulus o Romulus allowed the Sabine king to be killed, re-establishing sole rule  Allegory for experience of new brides  Question of loyalty for new brides – to husband or to father?  Dangers of have two rulers (future consulship) – struggle for power between them Tarpeia  Daughter of Roman commander who granted the Sabines access to Rome in exchange for what they bore on their left arms – was killed and thrown off a cliff  Two versions of the story: 1. Treason – she was greedy and wanted jewelry 2. Trying to help Rome – wanted to get the weapons from the Sabines  Livy says ‘however it came to be, the citadel was taken’  Cautionary tale for treachery  Misogynistic view: women’s emotions make them weak-willed, unable to control themselves Rape of Lucretia  Lucretia as ideal of ‘good Roman wife’  Needed to have sex with son of Etruscan king or he would kill he and make it look like she had sex with a slave  Made her family swear to get revenge and then killed herself  Causes the end of the regal period of Rome  Household should be sacred, not influenced by the King – crossing an imaginary line o Results of when the tyrant enters the house – crossing into the private sphere Familia  Everyone living within the household falling under the power of the paterfamilias o Paterfamilias: the oldest male in the household
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