Roman Culture Exam Notes.docx

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Rob Mc Cutcheon

Roman culture exam Lecture 1&2 – ORIGINS OF ROME - Seven hills of rome o Quirinal o Virminial o Esquiline o Caelian o Capitoline o Palentine o Aventine - 510 – Kingship is abolished - Important kings o Romulus o Tarquinius priscus o Servilius tullius o Tarqunius superbus - Characterized by the struggle of orders o Patrician and plebeian o NOT a class struggle but a political struggle Lecture 3 – HOUSE, HOME, AND FAMILIA - Familia was the primary unit of Roman life - Consumption, reproduction, production, socialization - Augustus + family - Passed three laws - Failure to marry = taxes, lessening of inheritance rights - Restrictions on who could marry who (especially for the senatorial class) - Adultery became a crime  Exile and confiscation of property  Concubinage was legally recognized - Women with three children would have a less restrictive form of guardianship - Slaves - Part of the familia - Killing your master resulted in the murder of all other slaves - Manumission (freeing slaves)  Known as freed men/women  Transitory class  Could not vote  Retained stigma of slavery  Made slaves less likely to rebel  Freedmen could be pretty successful (especially under empire) - Male naming system - Praenom (ex. Marcus, Gaius)  First name – more likely used within the family - Nomen (ex. Tullius, Julius)  Normally addressed by this (clan name) - Cognomen (ex. Cicero, Caesar)  Distinguished branch from clan - Female naming system - Daughters took a feminized version of their father’s nomen (ex. Tullia, Julia) - Daughters have all the same name differentiated by major/minor or prima/secunda/tertia etc. - Home is divided by social rank rather than gender (such as with the Greeks) Lecture 4 – THE PUBLIC SPHERE - Patronage - Instrumental friendship between the patron and client (who was normally of a lower class) - Helped define social structure - Reciprocal - Personal relationship instead of simple transaction - Almost always voluntary (with the exception of freedmen/women) - Salutatio - Meeting between client and patron in the atrium of the patrons house - They would ask favours of their patrons - Amicitia - Could mean actual friendship or political friendship - Cover for patronage - Exchanges of services (beneficia) - Important roman areas - The forum - The field of mars  Troops were marshalled there and were allowed to vote as it was outside the pomerium - The Res Publica - The public thing - Contrast with res domestica - Managed by magistrates with imperium - Magistrates (from highest to lowest) - CONSUL: highest magistrate. Two elected annually (counterbalance each other) who lead the government and army. They also carried out decrees of the senate. Their powers were limited both by each other and their limited term in office - PRAETOR: main duty was to hear legal cases however in theory they could do anything a consul could. They held imperium but it was less than that of the consul - TRIBUNE OF THE PLEBS: this position which could only be held by a member of the patrician class was charged with protection the persons and property of the plebians. They summoned the assembly of the plebs and enforced its plebiscites which after 287 BC with the lex hortensia became binding on the whole population. They also possessed sacrosanctus and had the power to veto other magistrates with the exception of the dictator - AEDILES: a mixture of 2 plebs and 2 patricians, Aediles were concerned with the management of infrastructure of the city. They also managed the grain supply and public games which they were responsible for p
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