Study Guide on Problem-Solving - defined terms, comparison with memory, history, and false assumptions

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University of Toronto St. George
Cognitive Science
John Vervaeke

PROBLEM SOLVING VS. MEMORY: we make things meaningful in many different ways, so there are many dimensions that must be considered during remembering. Relevance realization is required to explain memory in order to explain categorization. Cognition requires intelligence, though.. maybe problem-solving is more basic than both memory and categorization! Content addressability: having to organize memory in order to facilitate zeroing in on the RELEVANT information. Giving search-specific parameters based on content. GPS: general problem solver, heart of cog. Revolution, attempted by Newell & Simon 1957 Well-Defined vs. Ill-Defined: Ill-defined problems are difficult to FORMULATE, while well-defined problems are easy to understand but it may be difficult to take the necessary steps to solve the problem. Initial State: in which there is an unsolved problem, a desired goal whose method of attainment is not yet apparent Operators: Actions one may do to alter the initial state in the hopes of approaching the goal state Path Constraints: must be obeyed DURING problem-solving attempts, whether or not they are related to or essential for achieving the goal state. Goal State: The state in which the problem is solved Algorithm: A completely reliable routine or procedure that can be carried out in a finite # of steps Heuristics: Rules of thumb that tend to improve probability of success without actually guaranteeing a solution Rationality: in this case, a large part = knowing when & when not to be LOGICAL Means-ends Analysis: compare current state to goal state, identify salient differences between the two, select operators that will reduce them, etc etc etc Computatorial Explosion: Problem Formulation: picking out FEATURES, BACKGROUNDING things, APPERCEIVING the dynamic whole, RELATING the whole to ones interests, finding A PROBLEMquestion with the situation. Sizing Up: Noein: noticing the significance of? Apperception:
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