Term 2 Study Guide on RATIONALITY - terms, theories, important historical figures

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University of Toronto St. George
Cognitive Science
John Vervaeke

RATIONALITY TERMS & THEORIES: rationality: quality of thought in relation to norms of formal logic & probability. Rationality is a qualitative judgement of behaviour.. very difficult to define. Pseudodiagnosticity: failure to account for base rates, & tendency to look for data that confirms ones ideas rather than diagnostically relevant data. Availability Heuristic: explains why we overestimate the frequency of remarkable events we just dont pay attention to unremarkable events, so they seem relatively infrequent Finitary Predicament: We are not infinite creatures, so how can we grasp and respond to an infinitely big world of information, space, etc.? Some think that there is a limit to what we as humans have the capacity to learn or understand. Fundamental attribution error: tendency to attribute the irrational behaviour of others to their competence rather than circumstance. We attribute OUR failures to circumstance, and our successes to COMPETENCE. Cognitive style: sets of skills, habits, acquired dispositions for how one recruits cognitive info or deal with cognitive limitations **Cognitive commitment: we only have a certain amount of cognitive resources, and we need to use them economically. Opportunity cost Cognitive recruitment: which cognitive resources to use. A necessary subset of cognitive commitment Cognitive scope: see frame problem NORMATIVE THEORY OF TASK CONSTRUAL: stenovich&west How people SHOULD understand even if failures result from MISUNDERSTANDINGS, it still indicates a failure in REASONING (see smedslund) BUT HEY this assumes a static unique competence DUAL SYSTEMS THEORY: Idea that there are two distinct competences, each with different normative standards, and errors are the result of ambiguities as to which competence to refer to www.notesolution.com
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