COG250Y1 Study Guide - Homeostasis
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we make things meaningful in many different ways, so there are many
dimensions that must be considered during remembering. Relevance
realization is required to explain memory in order to explain categorization.
Cognition requires intelligence, though.. maybe problem-solving is more basic
than both memory and categorization!
Content addressability: having to organize memory in order to facilitate
zeroing in on the “RELEVANT” information. Giving search-specific
parameters based on content.
GPS: general problem solver, heart of cog. Revolution, attempted by Newell &
Well-Defined vs. Ill-Defined: Ill-defined problems are difficult to
FORMULATE, while well-defined problems are easy to understand but it
may be difficult to take the necessary steps to solve the problem.
Initial State: in which there is an unsolved problem, a desired goal whose
method of attainment is not yet apparent
Operators: Actions one may do to alter the initial state in the hopes of
approaching the goal state
Path Constraints: must be obeyed DURING problem-solving attempts,
whether or not they are related to or essential for achieving the goal state.
Goal State: The state in which the problem is solved
Algorithm: A completely reliable routine or procedure that can be carried
out in a finite # of steps
Heuristics: Rules of thumb that tend to improve probability of success
without actually guaranteeing a solution
Rationality: in this case, a large part = knowing when & when not to be
Means-ends Analysis: compare current state to goal state, identify salient
differences between the two, select operators that will reduce them, etc etc etc
Problem Formulation: picking out FEATURES, BACKGROUNDING
things, APPERCEIVING the dynamic whole, RELATING the whole to one’s
interests, finding A PROBLEM/question with the situation.
Noein: noticing the significance of?
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Dynamical System: a self-organizing structure that has feedback elements
Importance: relevant to oneself
Co-relevance: how pieces of info are relevant to each other
Salience: how organisms direct their attention to relevant info that will
facilitate & moderate its environment.
Mental Set Formation: making a sense of a situation’s bidirectional
relationship with problem formulation?
Expertise: almost COMPLETELY a function of mental set formation
Expert’s Fallacy: this mental set formation makes experts more susceptible
to fixations, which may be negative in many situations
Propositional Insight: involving a claim with truth-value
Procedural Insight: The possession of a skill more than the grasping of a
Program: Inferential manipulation of propositions
Concurrent Verbalization: having people put into words whatever they’re
doing (in Schooler et. Al.’s case, during problem-solving)
Primitive Learning: Conditioning?
Internal Opponent Processing: *
Potter’s 3-Stage Process:
•large amount of info (most “irrelevant”)
•selection process choose relevant information
oseems to share a lot in common with problem solving
•“It is passed to consciousness”
noting that to offer an explanation is to answer a question is to solve a
problem, we understand why people subsequently propose that the
FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE OF COGNITION may be problem-solving.
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