Term 2 Study Guide on RATIONALITY - terms, theories, important historical figures

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1 Feb 2011
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RATIONALITY
TERMS & THEORIES:
rationality: quality of thought in relation to norms of formal logic &
probability. Rationality is a qualitative judgement of behaviour.. very difficult
to define.
Pseudodiagnosticity: failure to account for base rates, & tendency to look for
data that confirms ones ideas rather than diagnostically relevant data.
Availability Heuristic: explains why we overestimate the frequency of
remarkable events we just dont pay attention to unremarkable events, so they
seem relatively infrequent
Finitary Predicament: We are not infinite creatures, so how can we grasp
and respond to an infinitely big world of information, space, etc.? Some think
that there is a limit to what we as humans have the capacity to learn or
understand.
Fundamental attribution error: tendency to attribute the irrational
behaviour of others to their competence rather than circumstance. We attribute
OUR failures to circumstance, and our successes to COMPETENCE.
Cognitive style: sets of skills, habits, acquired dispositions for how one
recruits cognitive info or deal with cognitive limitations
**Cognitive commitment: we only have a certain amount of cognitive
resources, and we need to use them economically. Opportunity cost
Cognitive recruitment: which cognitive resources to use. A necessary subset
of cognitive commitment
Cognitive scope: see frame problem
NORMATIVE THEORY OF TASK CONSTRUAL: stenovich&west
How people SHOULD understand even if failures result from
MISUNDERSTANDINGS, it still indicates a failure in REASONING (see
smedslund)
BUT HEY this assumes a static unique competence
DUAL SYSTEMS THEORY:
Idea that there are two distinct competences, each with different normative
standards, and errors are the result of ambiguities as to which competence to
refer to
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Ter ms & t heor ies: rationality: probability. Rationality is a qualitative judgement of behaviour very difficult to define. quality of thought in relation to norms of formal logic & Pseudodiagnosticity: failure to account for base rates, & tendency to look for data that confirms one"s ideas rather than diagnostically relevant data. Availability heuristic: explains why we overestimate the frequency of remarkable events we just don"t pay attention to unremarkable events, so they seem relatively infrequent. Some think that there is a limit to what we as humans have the capacity to learn or understand. Fundamental attribution error: tendency to attribute the irrational behaviour of others to their competence rather than circumstance. Our failures to circumstance, and our successes to competence. Cognitive style: sets of skills, habits, acquired dispositions for how one recruits cognitive info or deal with cognitive limitations. **cognitive commitment: we only have a certain amount of cognitive resources, and we need to use them economically.

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