-multiple realizability: the idea that the same mental property, state or
event can be implemented by any number of different physical properties,
states or events (goes with the idea that formal systems are medium-
-Identify tokens by their physical properties
-Indicate conditions under which we can carry out manipulations
-Indicate starting positions, legal manipulations, given legally arisen
configurations of tokens
Philosophical Zombie: a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a
normal human being, in appearance and in action. Its only difference being that it
lacks qualia: conscious experience or sentience.
Connectionism: how are thoughts shared using propositional representations?
We assume that cognition involves encoding info syntactically , referentially &
with propositions… but this is just because we verbalize thoughts.
Alternative to GOFAI, modeling cognition on plastic neural networks
Neural networks: series of nodes in which connections are assigned different
strengths and frequencies of signals.
Microprocessors: nodes & connections between them, with a symmetrical,
differential weighting system. (stronger connections allow for a great ease of
transfer, BUT tons o signal through a weakly weighted variable can override
signal through a heavily weighted connection)
Back-propagation of Error: nodes can alter each other’s paths of activity… but
how can they LEARN things about the world… homunculus-free?
Assume 3 layers of nodes: input, hidden, output. When something occurs,
PERFORMANCE LEVELS ARE EVALUATED:
Error value is calculated by subtracting performance from target value,
Then, nodes’ responsibilities (in percentage of blame) are assigned partially &
probabilistically. Then, connection weights are SLIGHTLY altered accordingly
(weakening connections to nodes deemed blameworthy, etc) This process occurs
again and again until the system accurately identifies mines and rocks alternately,