Ex: even when you are shown images sped into a blur , we can identify images of concepts (ex: picnic) when asked! Repetition @ intervals will preserve these memories indefinitely. What tends to be encoded is meaning rather than surface form. 1932 carmichael, hogan & walter experiment showing that memory is reconstructive rather than reproductive. the images" labels affected people"s reconstructions of what they saw. 1932ish f rederic bartlett experiment showing that memories are coded in a way that is adaptive to your retrieval cortex (re-organize to re-call) while recalling or storing, students had reorganized the story. 1967 sachs experiment showing that people tend to encode meaning over surface form. importance to meaning of sentences rather than their form. 1971 bransford & f ranks - experiments using more & more integrated or complex idea sets showing that people are most likely to remember things with meaning. we are more likely to ascribe importance to/remember things with.