CSB346H1 Midterm: CSB346 Midterm Study Notes

469 views26 pages
Published on 3 Aug 2015
School
UTSG
Department
Cell and Systems Biology
Course
CSB346H1
Professor
CSB346 Midterm Study Notes
Lecture #1
- Functions of the respiratory system
1) Pulmonary Ventilation (ventilating the lungs
2) Gas Exchange & Transport (getting O2 and CO2
from lungs into the blood)
3) Acid-Base Balance
4) Speaking and Vocalization
5) Immune Protection
6) Regulation of Body Temperature (eg. panting in
dogs)
- no gas exchange when passing through larynx-
terminal bronchioles
- gas exchange occurs
at end of chain
- alveoli increase
surface area
- alveolus = package
of 300 million alveoli
Type I
- regular cells, same
as those that make
blood vessel walls
- gas exchanged
through these cells
Type II
- secrete surfactant
(mostly lipids) to help alveoli stay in same shape
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- prevent alveoli collaps
- diffusion
- capillary is small enough that only one blood
cell can pass through at a time
- smoking and the lungs
- less gas exchanges
- less SA for gas exchange because of tar
buildup
- Respiratory Muscles
- pleural cavity
- diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle
Pleura: a membrane which lines
the interior surface of the chest wall and
the exterior surface of the lung
- Pneumothorax - collapsed lung
- Traumatic, eg. stab wound to the chest
- Spontaneous, eg. rupture of cyst in lung
or emphysema (cause of secondary
spontaneous pneumothorax)
- Haemothorax - blood filled chest cavity
- Components of the Respiratory System
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- diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle
- innervated by phrenic MNs (C3-C5) from
spinal chord to diaphragm
- 12 cranial nerves
- hypoglossal nerve controls
tongue muscles
- trigerminal nerve controls
muscle of soft pallet
- Respiratory Muscles - thoracic & abs
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