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[CSC258H1] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (26 pages long!)


Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC258H1
Professor
Frank Plavec
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
CSC258H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Computers are physical things, therefore they have certain limitations:
Data values are finite. All data is stored as ones and zeroes at the lowest level.
High-level operations depend on low-level ones
Integers are stored as ones and zeroes
e.g 1234 -> 10011010010
Usually integers can have 2^32 different values(but this depends on language and architecture)
Python/Java
Boolean variables
Boolean operations and, or, not,…
Integers, doubles, chars
Addition, subtraction, multiplication
Executing instructions
High and low voltages
Logic gates AND, OR, NOT,…
Registers, memory
Adder/subtractor circuits, multiplier circuits Processors
In hardware, true and false refers to electrical voltage values on the wires
True, or One- predefined voltage difference relative to the ground (we use 5 volts in labs)
False, or Zero-little to no voltage at that point, 0 V
Gates
Gates are like switches, which control whether an output wire will have a high value (5V) or a low value (0V)
Switches are physical devices for manually closing a circuit.
Gates consist of transistors, which are semiconductor devices that close a circuit electrically
Example, Or Gate and And Gate
Either A or B switch must be
closed for the output to be 1
Both switches must be closed for
the output to be 1
Circuits
Assuming that certain signals can be turned on (one) or off (zero), we need have ways to combine these signals
together. Example #1: If the Ctrl, Alt and Delete buttons are being pressed, restart the computer. Example #2:
If three train tracks converge onto a single track, only turn on the green light if a single track has a train waiting.
Every digital electronic device uses gates to combine input signals to create output signals. Very similar to
CSC165/CSC240 problems, but in hardware.
Lecture 1
September 21, 2016
11:33 PM
Lecture Notes Page 1
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How Gates Work
Gates can combine values together like logical operators in C or Java
Electric current is the flow of charged particles (usually electrons) through a material.
Electricity = electrons
Electrons are negatively charged particles
Protons are positively charged particles
Particles of the same polarity experience repelling force
Particles of the opposite polarity experience attractive force
When material (e.g. atom) has equal number of electrons and protons it is electrically neutral
Electricity Basics
Shuffling feet back and forth on carpet makes you pick up extra electrons in your body
This creates an electrical imbalance relative to the ground
When you touch an object or person that is electrically balanced, the extra electrons transfer
over to the object or person
Another example is the Van de Graaf Generator -> extra electrons in your hair repel each other
and since hair is very light, your hair rises
Static Electricity
Any charged particle produces an electric field in its surrounding
If one object has more electrons than protons, and another object has fewer electrons than
protons, connecting the two causes electrons to flow such that the difference is neutralized
The two objects have different electric potential
The difference in electric potential between two objects is referred to as voltage
The rate of flow of electrons when the two objects are connected is called the electric current
e.g imagine a water reservoir
Electrons flow from high concentration of electrons to low concentrations like water flows
from reservoir to ground
Voltage is similar to elevation of the water above the ground
Current is the rate of water flow
Voltage and Current
Batteries-where a concentration of particles stored inside them that will run out
eventually(like water reservoirs)
Electrical outlets-which are constantly supplied with electric particles that never run
out(like waterfalls)
Two common sources of electrons/electricity comes from
Sources of Electricity
A reference point that all other voltages are expressed against is called the zero voltage point
of a circuit(commonly referred to as ground)
Current is always said to flow towards ground, which is opposite direction to the flow of
electrons (just a convention)
The path of electricity
Lecture 2 (continued)
September 22, 2016
10:36 AM
Lecture Notes Page 1
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