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geology cheat sheet for test 1.docx

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Earth Sciences
Lisa Tutty

1) Baconian(Francis Bacon) – explore the universe, expreimently freely and collect facts, deduce things from facts – amateurs, Catesian (rene Decartes) – explain and unify findings, deduce laws by pure reason, experiments needed to verify laws – the pros 2) Science – The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, tires to explain natural phenomia and describes patterns, Scientists – describe patterns, formulate hypothesis, test these hypothesis in experiments, and are skeptical – ex: 1948 “Cosmic hypothesis” by Patrick Bennett – had a theory, tested it, and came to the conclusion that fields should become weaker the deeper you move into the earth – hypothesis was faster movement = stronger field 3) Aristotle vs. Brahe – Aristotle – Universe = sphere of unchanging peace and harmony, earth is violent while heavens are perfect, Tycho Brahe & de Nova Stella - refuted Aristotle’s view b/c he saw 2 th stars explode 4) Ptolemy – came up with the idea of Earth Centric Universe, wasn’t challenged until 15 century b/c idea was backed by the Church, Nicholas Copernicus – first, along with Galileo, to propose the idea that the earth was heliocentric ( sun – centered), and received much Criticism, although it was the beginning of modern astronomy 5) Renaissance tech – Printing Press 1440 Johan Guttenberg – allowed for the books and literature to become wide spread going to ordinary people, began to allow people to become educated and literate 6) George Agricola – made the first attempt to classify minerals based on their physical properties, rocks were in layers which contained order – no new ideas came for 200 years after him – he is the father of Mineralogy and forefather of geology – lead to the modern concepts of ore deposition, Da Vinci - valleys created by rivers, mountains destroyed by rain – erosion, sediment formed near seashore line’s 6) Renaissance Science – ancients - thought that everything derived from water, fire, air, and earth. Principle dominated for 2000 years, - the Renaissance scientists began to create universities, places of critical thought and began forming new ideas. Bernard Palissy - 3 big contributions to geologic thought : Origins of springs, Origins of fossils, Origins of crystals . 7) Neptunists vs Plutonists – Neptunists – Watermen fronted by Abraham Werner - rocks we see originated by sedimenting or precipitating out of a primeval ocean. Plutonists – Firemen fronted by James Hutton and Anton Moro - rocks we see originated by cooling of molten magma or by other action of heat. Problem with neptunist theory – cross – cutting layers, where did the water go, and tilted layers. – it would be replaced by James Hutton’s Principle of Unformitarianism in the 19 th century 8) Basalt Controversy – was basalt sedimentary or volcanic ? –originally thought to be sedimentary, but was proven to be volcanic 9) Why was the inquisition so vehemently opposed to Galileo’s work ? -Went against the church ,Changed the premise of a earth centered universe, Defied the power of the church, Went against the thinking of the ancient philosophers. 10) Sir Isaac Newton - invented the reflecting telescope, and came up with the Universal law of Gravitation and the Laws of Motion, but raised controversy b/c was working at Cambridge and was religion, but didn’t believe in the trinity, so wasn’t allowed to publish papers on theology. 11) Gottfried Leibniz - He founded the laws of Continuity and the Trascentidal law of Homogeny 12) Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism – Catastrophism – earth reached its current state by a series of catastrophic events, supported by Georges Cuvier – Uniformitarianism - the Earth is in a steady balance explained by currently observable processes over long periods of time, it changes over long periods of time, supported by James Hutton, Lyell and others 13) Religion and Science - John Polkinghorne – sees religion and theology as two different intellectual activities, Feynman saw religion as a way for people to make sense of their lives, religion didn’t allow them to question, science allowed them to combined their ethical commands and question everything. Dyson 1)Western science grew out of Christian theology (grew explosively in Christian Europe and left the rest of the world behind). A thousand years of theological disputes nurtured the habit of analytical thinking that could also be applied to the analysis of natural phenomena.2) Close relations between theology and science have caused conflicts between science and Christianity that do not exist between science and other religions.14) Aristotle vs. Darwin W.R.T Evolution – Aristotle - saw all things as imperfect actualisations of different fixed natural possibilities, known as "forms", "ideas", or "species“; all things as having an intended role to play in a divine cosmic order. Erasmus Darwin – Proposed that all warm blooded animals could have originated from a single micro – organism Darwin - Came up with the Origin and Species and Theory of Natural Selection 1)more offspring are produced than can possibly survive, 2) traits vary among individuals, leading to differential rates of surv
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