answers of post question 2

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Department
East Asian Studies
Course
EAS100Y1
Professor
secondpost-exam-questionanswers
Semester
Summer

Description
Q1: According to Goodman and Tombas analysis, their definition of middle class suggests individual wealth, new market, and more open societies, especially the potential for democracy. These new categories either own or control substantial wealth and thereby have the ability to affect significantly the lives on others. They are rarely if ever independent of the party-state. Small-scale private entrepreneur requires close cooperation with local government to continue their expansion. They are the most willing or able to take advantages of the changed policies of the reform era. Owner-operators, initially private entrepreneurs, are conspicuous wealthy. However, most of owner-operators are on a very small scale indeed. One often-stated reason for becoming or staying an owner-operator is the noneconomic choice of preferring to work for oneself. For managers of state capitalists, immediately realizable personal wealth is less important than the influence they wield and their control of economic wealth. Their access to power and influence over others is matched by their total sufficient income. Managers of social-owned enterprises are able to establish various activities and in the process to gain status and to some extent personal wealth. For suburban executives, their importance is also derived from the economic wealthy they control. Different categories of new middle classes remain homogenous in social, cultural and political terms. Socially, they are characterized by their intense parochialism: majority are natives of the locality in which they work and their careers provide evidence of remarkably limited social mobility. Culturally, the new middle classes are important because of their influence as trendsetters. Their behavior and activities set standards that others aspire to follow. Luxury cars, cell phones, private education are their symbols. Politically, they depend on and remain close cooperation with the party-state. Tomba, in addition, concentrated on professional middle- class and the influence that housing policies brings. In 2002, the government proposed an idea of co-opting private entrepreneur into the Party, which helps for liberation of consumption forces. This gives professional middle-class more opportunities to acquire their social influences. After housing policy is decreed, Chinese middle-class gains more social wealth and influence by acquiring several houses using their high incomes and better bargaining power. As the gap of wealth enlarged, Chinese middle class remain higher social status and more wealth, contracting to the household who normally cannot afford economy housing. Chinese middle class identities are by no means identical to those on the earlier European experience, or automatically reflective of universal trends. Contrast to middle class in European experience, Chinese party-state remains central to Chinas economic development. However, Goodman argues that Chinas new middle classes are the product of the economic restructuring of a state socialist system which has much in common with the varieties transforming developmental state in East Asia. In Tombas analysis, he proposes that public policies, economic conditions and the allocation of resources have all contributed to the rapid upward socio-economic mobility of the middle-class. In my opinion, the middle class, with initial individual wealth and open societies, will take the advantage of market reform and eventually be in the www.notesolution.com
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