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EAS105H1 midterm study

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East Asian Studies
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1. Matteo Ricci: an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th–18th centuries. He learned the Chinese culture, language and philosophy, acted as a bridge to literati. He was linguistically talented, wrote in Latin and Chinese, translated Confucius doctoring to Latin, brought map to emperor and put China in the center of the map, because China believed itself to be the “Middle Kingdom”. 2. The Manchus: Decedents of Jurchens, ruler Jin Dynasty China. During the Ming period they lived in dispersed communities in Manchuria around now a day Liaoning, Jingling and Heilongjiang area. They were densely populated. Manchus were hunters, fishers and farmers. Lived in a tribal social structure and were excellent horsemen and archers and had a strong hierarchy system with elites and slaves. Nurhaci was a Manchu ruler that had expanded his territories and created a social, political and military organization that brought together Manchus, Mongols and the Chinese. Organized his army in Banners, identified by their color, each banner was made up of a set of military companies but included the family and slaves of the solders as well. It had a hereditary system the commanding officers were from Nurhaci’s own linage. Manchus were called to help Ming in the peasant rebellions; the Manchus took the throne themselves and found the Qing (pure) dynasty in 1644-1911.thany Chinese resisted the Manchus out of loyalty to Ming, though by 18 century managed to accommodate each other. The Manchus created a multiethnic empire, adding Taiwan, Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang to their realm, making the Qing Empire comparable to Russian empire. 3. Emperor Qianlong: Yongzheng emperor’s heir ruled in (1736-1795). During his reign Qing Empire was expanded to its maximum extent, with addition of Chinese Turkestan Xinjian. Qianlong's reign in particular has been termed one of China's golden ages, during which the economy expanded, and China was the wealthiest and most populous country in the world and Huge population growth. He impressed his subjects with his magnificence; he had great ability to speak in the political and religious idioms of those they ruled. He initiated a massive project by translating the Tibetan Buddhist canon into Mongolian and Manchu and had a multilingual dictionary complied. He was a sage emperor worked hard. A filial Chinese son devoted to his mother, visited her daily. He was quick to act on any suspicion of anti-Mancu thoughts or actions. In his 60s began to favor an imperial bodyguard Heshen give him high posts. Uprising in several parts of the country were hard to suppress. Heshen supplied the emperor rosy reports and pocketed much of the military appropriations himself. Qianlong is known for his scholarship and investment of the arts. He published catalogues of the royal collections, which he expanded greatly (he had, for example, 30,000 jades). He wrote thousands of poems in beautiful calligraphy. He was a painter himself and attracted painters to court (including the Italian Jesuit missionary, Giuseppe Castiglione). He commissioned magnificent palaces and temples. He often inscribed his name and sentiments on paintings, ceramics and jades in the imperial collection 4. The Tokugawa regime 5. Neo-Confucianism 6. Naehun 7. Nativism in Japan 8. Eurocentric Diffusionism : 9. The Floating World (ukiyo): was an expression of the new economy and social ambitions of the common townspeople of the Edo period (1615-1868). It was, specifically, a world of play and entertainment in Japan's three main cities (Edo [now called Tokyo], Osaka, and Kyoto). It could also be argued that this "world" was also a state of mind or an ethos, a characteristic spirit of the chônin ("persons of the town"). Although the activities and occupations varied, the participants focused particularly upon the pleasure quarters and entertainment districts. These areas of play were ritualized milieu offering escape from the constraints that the samurai estate forced upon the growing and increasingly more economically powerful merchant class. 10. Tea and sugar 11. The Meiji Restoration 12. Modernity 13. The Outcasts in Edo Japan 14. The Civilization and Enlightenment Movement (bunmei) 15. Taiping Rebellion: The Taiping Rebellion was a massive civil war in southern China from 185 to 1866, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. It was a millenarian movement led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus. At least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. Hong established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom with its capital at Nanjing. The Kingdom's army controlled large parts of southern China, at its height ruling about 30 million people. The rebel agenda included social reforms such as shared "property in common," equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity. Because of their refusal to wear the queue, Taiping troops were nicknamed "Longhairs" by the Qing government, which besieged the Taiping armies throughout the rebellion. The Qing government eventually crushed the rebellion with the aid of French and British forces. In the 20th century, Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party, looked on the rebellion as an inspiration, and Chinese leader Mao Zedong glorified the Taiping rebels as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal system. 16. The Banner System 17. Emperor Kangxi: The Kangxi Emperor was the fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Pass and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. Kangxi Emperor immediately began to recruit scholars from the Yangzi River delta area, which is called "the South" in China and includes the city of Suzhou. The Kangxi Emperor brought these men into his court to support his cause of transforming the Manchu way of ruler ship into a truly Confucian establishment based very much on Ming dynasty prototypes. Through this maneuver, the Kangxi Emperor was able to win over the scholarly elite and, more importantly, the Chinese populace at large. The first half of the Kangxi Emperor's rule was devoted to the stabilization of the empire: gaining control over the Manchu hierarchy and suppressing armed rebellions (wu Sangui). It was only in the second half of his rule that he would begin to turn his attention to economic prosperity and the patronage of art and culture. The commission of the Southern Inspection Tours (Nanxuntu), a set of twelve mammoth scrolls depicting the emperor's tour route from Beijing to the cultural and economic centers of the South, was one of the Kangxi Emperor's first acts of artistic patronage. 18. Chinoiserie : Fanciful European interpretations of Chinese styles in the design of interiors, furniture, pottery, textiles, and gardens. The expansion of trade with East Asia produced a lively vogue for Chinese fashions in the 17th–18th centuries. The most outstanding chinoiserie interior was the Trianon de Porcelaine (1670–71), built for Louis XIV at Versailles. The style featured lavish gilding and lacquering, the use of blue and white (as in delftware), asymmetrical forms, unorthodox perspective, and Asian motifs. In the 19th century, the fashion gave way to Turkish and other styles considered exotic. THE WESTERN PERCEPTION OF CHINA 19. Yangban: The yangban were part of the traditional ruling class or nobles of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. The yangban were either landed or unlanded aristocracy who comprised the Korean Confucian idea of a "scholarly official." Basically, they were administrators and bureaucrats who oversaw ancient Korea's traditional agrarian bureaucracy until the ancien regime of Joseon Dynasty ended in 1894. In a broader sense, office holder's family and descendents as well as country families who claimed such descendence were also socially accepted as yangban 20. The Dutch Learning: 21. Kaiho Seiryō and his Lessons from the Past 22. Western Imperialism 23. “Traditional women” : in the historical writing women were often described as domestic, obedient, submissive, victimized. Dedicated to family, sacrifice for family, dedicated to in laws. Occurring to Dorthy ko, some women in tradition was not always as listed. Women in 17 and 18 century China was educated, they published own written theory. Women were also not always in the domestic sphere, Ban Zhao finished the history book started by her brother, and she became a role model. Anne Walthall also noted in Japanese women with different class regional differences lived different lives. Elite women followed the virtuous women they did not work and stayed indoors. Poor women worked and because they could not afford to not work they interacted with men and went to the public. 24. Social Darwinism 25. The Opium Wars: 1839–42 and 1856–60, two wars between China and Western countries. The first was between Great Britain and China. Early in the 19th cent., British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain. In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou (Canton) a large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities. China, unable to withstand modern arms, was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (1843). These provided that the ports of Guangzhou, Jinmen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai should be open to British trade and residence; in addition Hong Kong was ceded to the British. Within a few years other Western powers signed similar treaties with China and received commercial and residential privileges, and the Western domination of China's treaty ports began. In 1856 a second war broke out following an allegedly illegal Chinese search of a British-registered ship, the Arrow, in Guangzhou. British and French troops took Guangzhou and Tianjin and compelled the Chinese to accept the treaties of Tianjin (1858), to which France, Russia, and the United States were also party. China agreed to open 11 more ports, permit foreign legations in Beijing, sanction Christian missionary activity, and legalize the import of opium. China's subsequent attempt to block the entry of diplomats into Beijing as well as Britain's determination to enforce the new treaty terms led to a renewal of the war in 1859. This time the British and French occupied Beijing and burned the imperial summer palace (Yuan ming yuan). The Beijing conventions of 1860, by which China was forced to reaffirm the terms of the Treaty of Tianjin and make additional concessions, concluded the hostilities. 26. Wei Yuan: The Chinese historian and geographer Wei Yüan (1794-1856) was one of the first Chinese to advocate learning about the West; he collected and edited available facts in the "Illustrated Gazetteer of the Countries Overseas."
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